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Miami-Dade

BARBARA BAER CAPITMAN, HISTORIC PRESERVATIONIST
Location:
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami Beach
Description: This building is home to the Miami Design Preservation League, founded by Barbara Baer Capitman in 1976. On May 14, 1979, under her leadership, the Miami Beach Architectural District (Art Deco District) became the first urban 20th century historic district to gain recognition on the National Register of Historic Places. Capitman fought tooth and nail to preserve the Art Deco District and was known to stand in front of bulldozers to protect her beloved Art Deco buildings. Over 800 Art Deco buildings remain as testament to her defiance. The drab run-down hotels on Ocean Drive were revitalized and painted in pastel colors selected by League co-founder Leonard Horowitz. Miami’s cultural development and tourism revival flowed from Capitman’s vision and efforts. She spurred a national and international movement for the preservation of 20th century design and architecture. Barbara Baer Capitman preserved an architectural treasure and changed the fate of Miami Beach, creating a world class tourist destination. ''My whole life had been Art Deco,'' she once said. ''I was born at the beginning of the period and grew up during the height of it. It's a thing of fate.'' In 1990, Capitman died in Miami at age 69.
MIAMI CITY CEMETERY
Location:1800 NE 2nd Ave
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: In 1897 Mrs. William Brickell sold this 10-acre “rocky wasteland” to the City of Miami for $750. At that time it was located one half mile north of the city limits on a narrow wagon track county road. The first burial, not recorded, was of an elderly black man on 14 July 1897. The first recorded burial was H. Graham Branscomb, a 23-year-old Englishman on 20 July 1897. From its inception it was subdivided with whites on the east end and the colored population on the west end. In 1915 the Beth David congregation began a Jewish section. Two other prominent sections are the circles: the first to Julia Tuttle, the “Mother of Miami” buried in 1898; the second, a memorial to the Confederate Dead erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Sixty-six Confederate and twenty-seven Union veterans are buried here. Other sections include a Catholic section, American Legion, Spanish American War, and two military sections along the north and south fence lines. Among the 9,000 burials are pioneer families such as the Burdines, Peacocks and Dr. James Jackson. This site has the only known five oolitic (limestone) gravestones worldwide. These and the unique tropical plants make this a tropical oasis.
Sponsors: Sons of Confederate Vetrans, Dade Heritage Trust, Commissioners Regalado, Winton and Teele, and the Florida Department of State
ST. MARY FIRST MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH
Location:136 Frow Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: St. Mary First Missionary Baptist Church was the first African American church in Coral Gables. The church was founded on March 9, 1924, and its congregation of seventeen members first met in an old school house on Thomas Avenue in the MacFarlane Homestead Subdivision. This district contains one of the few remaining concentrations of buildings that reflect the city’s African American heritage. In 1926, the congregation built a permanent house of worship on the present location, but it was destroyed by a hurricane in 1926. Another wooden sanctuary was built under the leadership of the Rev. C.H. Williams. In 1938, the Rev. W.F. Tanner began a long association with the church. Upon his arrival, the church had only 162 members; by 1948, under his pastorship, the congregation had grown to over 1,500 members. Rev. Tanner began an ambitious building program for the church, and in 1958 he completed this masonry building. The congregation wanted the new church to be similar in design to the previous church. To that end, architect J. Frank Bradley designed the two-story church with a tower at the same location as in the earlier building. Rev. Tanner served as pastor of the church for 41 years until his death in 1979.
Sponsors: The City of Coral Gables and the Florida Department of State
PORT OF MIAMI
Location:Port Boulevard and Biscayne Boulevard, State Road #5
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Miami’s waterfront location has played a critical role in its history. In 1895, landowners Julia Tuttle and William and Mary Brickell persuaded Henry Flagler to extend his Florida East Coast Railroad south and build a port city. Flagler’s first passenger train reached Miami in 1896, and the city of 300 residents was then incorporated. In this area, Flagler dredged a 12-foot channel in 1897 and began regular passenger service between Miami and Key West. Flagler’s Peninsular and Occidental (P&O) Steamship Company later began the first regular shipping service between Miami, Granada, and Nassau. In the post-World War II boom, Miami’s geographic proximity as one of the closest U.S. ports to the Caribbean and South America, the city’s transportation and international trade pioneers, and its connection with global commerce, have made it the "Cruise Capital of the World" and “Cargo Gateway of the Americas.” The port accommodates the largest cruise ships in the world, and is one of an elite group of international ports that cater to both cruise ships and containerized cargo vessels.
Sponsors: Foreign Affairs Center, Inc., Florida Trade Association
NW 36th STREET BRIDGE
Location:Bridge that carries Northwest 36th Street over Miami (C-6) Canal
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: A rare example of a Hanover Skew bridge once crossed the Miami Canal at this location. The bridge, completed in 1952, was built to carry increasing automobile traffic to and from Miami International Airport, southwest of this location. In the early 1950s, Miami politicians were closely watching municipal spending, and chose this affordable bridge design to reduce traffic issues and accommodate the growing boat traffic on the Miami Canal. The engineering firm of Hardesty & Hanover developed the Hanover Skew bridge design to provide a solution to the skewed crossing over the Miami Canal at NW 36th Street. The bridge required only one set of machinery, a massive pier, and one bascule leaf, which made it economical. Hanover Skew type bridges are unique because of the angled bascule leaf, which rises up and over when opening, similar to turning pages in a book. The NW 36th Street Bridge was one of only three Hanover Skew bridges built in Florida, and one of four bridges of this type built in the United States, all between 1945 and 1963. The Hanover Skew bridge at this location was removed in 2015.
Sponsors: The Florida Department of Transportation
WOMEN TAKE ACTION IN CORAL GABLES (The Roxcy O'Neal Bolton House)
Location:Alhambra Circle and Madrid
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Built in 1933, this Mediterranean Revival house is a contributing structure in the Coral Gables Plantation Historic District, one of the earliest developments in the city planned by George Merrick. Throughout the late 1960s and the 1970s, this house became a meeting place for those who campaigned for equal rights for women. Resident and pioneer feminist Roxcy O’Neal Bolton opened her home as headquarters to organize numerous rallies and marches and founded the Miami Dade Chapter of the National Organization for Women. In an effort to bring public attention to the special needs of women, organizational meetings were held in this house to establish Women in Distress, the first women’s rescue shelter in Florida, and the Rape Treatment Center at Jackson Memorial Hospital. Community meetings were also held here to create the Citizen’s Crime Watch of Dade County, one of the first of its kind in the country. Under Roxcy Bolton’s leadership, the perseverance of all those who volunteered their time here created a forceful voice for justice for those who would otherwise not be heard.
Sponsors: Coral Gables Historic Preservation Board and the Florida Department of State
THE BARNACLE
Location:3485 Main Highway
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: The Barnacle is one of the oldest homes in Dade County still standing on its original site. It was built in 1891 by Ralph Middleton Munroe, one of Coconut Grove’s most prominent pioneers. He visited South Florida in 1877 and moved to this area in 1881. Commodore Munroe purchased 40 acres of bay front land, including this five acre site. He built the boathouse in 1887 and lived on its upper floor until the main house was completed. In 1894 he married Jenny Wirth. They had two children Patty and Wirth, who were brought up here. This historic site and the original house with its additions were donated to the state of Florida by the Munroe family in 1973.
Sponsors: The Barnacle Society Inc and the Florida Department of State.
OLD CUTLER ROAD
Location:Old Culter Rd between Tivoli Ave and SW 74th St
County: Miami-Dade
City: Cutler Bay
Description: Old Cutler Road owes its name to the former town of Cutler, a farming community founded by William Fuzzard in the late 1800s. The town was named after Dr. William Cutler of Massachusetts who visited the area about 1880 and encouraged Fuzzard and others to settle here. In 1883, Fuzzard, with the help of other residents of Cutler, cut a path north and east through a wilderness of pine rocklands and hardwood hammocks to the Village of Coconut Grove. The road followed a natural limestone ridge along Biscayne Bay, and established the first overland route connecting Coconut Grove and Cutler. It was subsequently widened to a wagon trail, and was declared a public road in 1895. The road became known as Cutler Road, later as Ingraham Highway, and still later as Old Cutler Road. Today, Old Cutler Road, which follows a somewhat altered course, maintains the appearance and atmosphere of a country road, and provides a tangible reminder of the heritage of the Miami area. Old Cutler Road was declared a State Historic Highway in 1974 by the Florida Legislature.
Sponsors: The Town of Cutler Bay and the Florida Department of State
OPERATION PEDRO PAN / OPERACIÓN PEDRO PAN
Location:155 NW 14th St
County: Miami-Dade
City: Florida City
Description: On this site, which was officially known as the Florida City Shelter of the Catholic Welfare Bureau’s Cuban Children’s Program, thousands of Operation Pedro Pan children found refuge from Communist Cuba between 1961 and 1966. Operation Pedro Pan was conceived and organized by Monsignor Bryan O. Walsh of the Archdiocese of Miami and James Baker, headmaster of Ruston Academy in Havana, Cuba, at the request of parents who sought to prevent Communist indoctrination of their children. It was financed largely by the United States Government with full support of the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations, and was supervised by the State of Florida. Between December 1960 and October 1962, over 14,000 Pedro Pan children arrived in South Florida. The Florida City Shelter was the largest of the Operation’s facilities in the state. It housed girls 5-19 years old and boys under 13 who lived in home units under the care of exiled Cuban couples who served as house parents. Its day-to-day operations were managed by Catholic priests and Sisters of St. Philip Neri. Many Operation Pedro Pan children went on to plant deep roots in the region and made significant contributions to Florida and the nation. En este sitio, denominado Refugio de Florida City del Programa de Niños Cubanos del Buró Católico de Bienestar Social, miles de niños integrantes de la Operación Pedro Pan recibieron albergue de Cuba Comunista entre 1961 y 1966. La operación fue concebida y organizada por el Monseñor Bryan O. Walsh de la Arquidiócesis de Miami y por James Baker, director de la Academia Ruston, ubicada en La Habana, Cuba, a solicitud de padres que no querían que sus hijos fueran adoctrinados por el régimen. Fue financiada por el gobierno estadounidense, con respaldo de las administraciones de Eisenhower, Kennedy y Johnson y supervisada por el gobierno estatal de Florida. Entre diciembre de 1960 y octubre de 1962, más de 14,000 niños cubanos llegaron al sur de Florida. En el Refugio de Florida City, el mayor del estado, se acogieron niñas entre 5 y 19 años de edad y niños menores de 13. Los menores residían en hogares encabezados por matrimonios cubanos exiliados que fungían como padres. La administración estaba bajo la dirección de sacerdotes católicos y las Hermanas de San Felipe Neri. Muchos niños de Operación Pedro Pan echaron raíces en la región y contribuyeron al desarrollo socioeconómico y cultural de Florida y del país.
Sponsors: Operation Pedro Pan Group, Inc. and the Florida Department of State
VIRGINIA KEY BEACH STATE PARK
Location:Virginia Beach Drive, Virginia Key State Park
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Virginia Key Beach Park is an environmental and historic landmark on a barrier island in Miami. Its earliest recorded history is of an 1838 skirmish during the Second Seminole War in which three Seminoles were killed on this site. From the early 1900s onward, during the era of segregation laws, this location became a popular unofficial “Colored” recreation area known as “Bears Cut.” In response to a bold protest led by attorney Lawson E. Thomas and others demanding an officially designated beach, Virginia Key Beach opened for “the exclusive use of Negroes” on August 1, 1945. The new park, at first accessible only by boat, was an immediate success, attracting over 1,000 visitors on any given weekend. In addition to the baptisms and sunrise services which regularly took place, churches, organizations, and families gathered here for memorable picnics and social events. The park brought together all neighborhoods and social classes of the “Colored” community. By the early 1960s, another courageous protest brought segregation to an end. The beach park symbolizes the struggle of Black Miamians who persevered to bring about change for future generations.
U.S. COAST SURVEY BASE MARKER
Location:1200 Crandon Boulevard
County: Miami-Dade
City: Key Biscayne
Description: In 1807, President Thomas Jefferson signed legislation calling for a survey of the United States’ coastlines. Initially coordinated by the U.S. Navy, the survey was taken over by the newly-formed, civilian U.S. Coast Survey team in 1832. Led by superintendent Alexander Dallas Bache, a U.S. Coast Survey team erected two base markers, each weighing over 3.5 tons, on Key Biscayne in 1855. The team established a 3.6-mile baseline that was used in conjunction with other surveys to create some of the first truly accurate maps of the Florida coastline and reefs. The north marker is located on land that is now within the Crandon Park Golf Course. The original south marker was on land 300 feet south of the Cape Florida Lighthouse, but had disappeared into the sea by 1883 as the shoreline eroded. In 1988, local professional land surveyors located remnants of the southern marker in 12 feet of water and the U.S. Air Force 301st Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron recovered it. The recovery effort helped to preserve some physical remains representing the Coast Survey team’s struggle to measure and map Florida’s coast.
HOUSEKEEPERS- COCONUT GROVE WOMEN'S CLUB
Location:2985 South Bayshore Drive
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: Side One: Organized as the Housekeepers Club of Coconut Grove when it was founded in 1891, the Woman’s Club of Coconut Grove is the oldest federated woman’s club in South Florida. Together with other pioneer women, local school teacher Flora McFarlane organized the club. The first meeting was held in a school house owned by Isabella “Aunt Bella” Peacock. The club worked to further the educational, social, and cultural development of the area’s residents and raised money for the construction of a new school house. The Pine Needles Club formed as an offshoot of the woman’s club became the foundation for the Coconut Grove Library. Around 1909, the club investigated ways to protect the Everglades from development. Mary Barr Munroe spearheaded an effort with the Florida Federation of Women’s Clubs to purchase land in the Everglades for conservation. The women’s efforts culminated in 1916 with the designation of Royal Palm State Park by the Florida legislature. As Florida’s first state park, it became the nucleus of what is now the Everglades National Park. Still active today, the club remains one of the most important civic organizations in the history of Coconut Grove and South Florida. Side Two: The first clubhouse was erected on land donated by Ralph Munroe in 1917. Local architect, Walter de Garmo, was hired to design this new clubhouse, which was built in 1921. De Garmo also designed the first Miami City Hall, Coral Gables Bank, and McAllister Hotel. The building was well-adapted to the South Florida environment with a wide wraparound porch, spacious arched openings (now enclosed), and high ceilings all intended to help circulate the cool breeze. Considered a focal point for the building, the porch was made from native oolithic limestone (coral rock), common in other Coconut Grove buildings. Located next to the library and across from the Peacock Inn (now Peacock Park), the clubhouse was at the heart of Coconut Grove’s social life. This building remains significant because of its association with Coconut Grove’s early development and for its role as a social and cultural center of the community.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
E.W.F. STIRRUP HOUSE
Location:3242 Charles Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: Side One: Bahamian immigrants played an integral role in the development of Coconut Grove. African-Bahamian immigrant Ebenezer Woodbury Franklin Stirrup was born in 1873, and emigrated from the Bahamas in 1888. Stirrup worked as a carpenter’s apprentice first in Key West, then moved his family to Coconut Grove to work on James Deering’s pineapple farm. Through his entrepreneurial talent, Stirrup became one of the largest landowners in the area and built this two-story Frame Vernacular house for himself in 1897. Believing homeownership led people to be better citizens, he built more than 100 homes for African Americans in the region, and provided other blacks with opportunities to rent and later purchase their first homes. In addition to real estate, Stirrup owned a grocery store, bicycle repair shop, tailor shop, meat market, and dry goods store. The Bahamas had the same coral rock and climate, so Stirrup and others knew how to use this soil to plant tropical trees, vegetables, and fruits. Furthermore, they knew how to use the local limestone to make lime mortar used in stone foundations for houses. Side Two: The Stirrup House is one of a few wood-frame residences from the late nineteenth century remaining in Miami-Dade County. The house’s narrow proportions, the size and shape of its doors and windows, and its L-shaped plan are characteristics frequently associated with the era’s residential architecture. The house contains materials of outstanding quality that are native and unique to South Florida, including Dade County slash pine. Though the building has been altered over the years, it retains much of its overall integrity, and is a remarkable example of architecture associated with the Bahamian experience in South Florida. Along with the rehabilitated Mariah Brown House nearby to the west, the E.W.F. Stirrup House serves as a reminder of the achievement of these early pioneers.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
COCONUT GROVE LIBRARY
Location:2875 McFarlane Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: Side One: This library stands as testament to the tenacity of Coconut Grove’s pioneering citizens. Established by the Pine Needles Club, an organization for young girls formed by local teacher Mary Barr Munroe, the first library operated out of a room above Charles Peacock and Son’s grocery store in the 1890s. Munroe held classes in the room until the library was built in 1901. The first books in the library’s collection were donated in 1895 by Louise Carnegie, wife of steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, who had visited the area earlier on a yachting trip. The books were originally housed in other locations and primarily used by local bibliophiles. Ralph Middleton Munroe, owner of the Barnacle and Commodore of the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club, donated the land for construction of the library building. In doing so, Commodore Munroe stipulated that the grave of his late wife, Eva, would be maintained on-site. Writer and conservationist Kirk Munroe, husband of Mary Munroe, donated the building. The building was reminiscent of a single story English Cotswold Cottage with a clipped-gable roof and was constructed from Miami oolite, a native limestone. Side Two: The Coconut Grove Library Association operated the small building until 1957, when the City of Miami offered to build a new air-conditioned facility. The association’s trustees reluctantly accepted. In 1963, the city commissioned local architectural firm T. Triplett Russell and Associates to design the modern library. In his designs Russell paid homage to the original library design by incorporating oolithic limestone into the wall construction and a clipped-gable roof for the new building’s westernmost wing. The two-story building is defined by a steep, hipped A-frame roof structure. Horizontal metal slats on the exterior shade a wide and un-air conditioned wood veranda space with built-in seating. Like the original building, the new library was built from local materials such as Dade County Rocklands slash pine. Below is a photo of the 1901 library.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
EVANGELIST STREET- CHARLES AVENUE
Location:Charles Avenue from Main Highway to 37th Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: Side One: In the late 1800s, African-Bahamians migrated to the United States after exhaustion of the islands’ rocky soil. South Florida and the Florida Keys, with similar geography and climate, became attractive destinations. Most Bahamians that settled in Coconut Grove were from the Island of Eleuthera, where the majority of inhabitants were formerly enslaved people from West Indian plantations. One of the first arrivals was Mariah Brown, who was among the first settlers to build their house in this area. When more immigrants settled in the neighborhood, the residents asked the town to put in a road. When the town refused, the Bahamian community built their own road from oolithic limestone (coral rock). Evangelist Street took its name from the neighboring churches, many of which served black congregations, including Macedonia Baptist Church, St. Agnes Baptist Church, and St. Paul’s Methodist Church. Another prominent individual from the Bahamian community on Evangelist Street was E.W.F. Stirrup, who built homes to sell and rent to other newly-arrived Bahamian immigrants. Evangelist Street/Charles Avenue symbolizes the thriving Bahamian community in the area. Side Two: As the neighborhood grew, Evangelist Street grew with it. The street became the cultural and commercial center for the Bahamian community, and extended from Main Highway on the east to Douglas Road (SW 37th Avenue) on the west. In the early 1900s, the street name was changed to Charles Avenue after early settler Joseph Frow’s son, Charles. The Frow family sold land to many of the early Bahamian pioneers to build their homes. In the 1920s the business district moved to County Road, now Grand Avenue. While other parts of Coconut Grove continued to develop, the Charles Avenue area remained the same and was one of the last streets in Coconut Grove to be paved or receive sewers. Charles Avenue remains the backbone of the community and includes an important cemetery, where notable pioneers are buried, as well as historic shotgun homes owned by Mariah Brown and E.W.F. Stirrup. The Neighborhood Conservation District was formed here in 2005.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
NAS MIAMI- PAN AM SEAPLANE BASE
Location:2500 Pan American Boulevard
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: Known as the “Air Gateway between the Americas”, the Pan American Seaplane Base and Terminal Building is significant in the history of modern air transportation and is an outstanding example of air terminal design. In 1929, Pan American Airways began seaplane service, between the United States and Latin America, on the site of the former Miami Naval Air Station, which had been destroyed by the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926. Pan Am’s first hangar was constructed in 1931. The first passengers left from a houseboat “terminal” anchored nearby until this permanent terminal building was constructed in 1934. In the 1930s, the base was one of the nation’s busiest commercial seaplane airports. In 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt passed through the base on his way to Casablanca, marking the first time a U.S. president had traveled by air while in office. The last Pan Am flight left the terminal in 1945, and the site was sold to the City of Miami the next year. Some of the hangers were demolished, and the terminal building became the Miami City Hall in 1954. The terminal’s main waiting room now serves as the Miami City Commission’s chambers. Side Two: In its day, this Art Deco style building was the largest, most modern marine air terminal in the world. Its painted frieze contains images from the history of aviation and the signs of the zodiac. The seaplane base was designed for both aerial and land views. A long straight entry drive with median represents an airplane’s fuselage. The maintenance hangers on each side were angled in a “V”-shape towards the north representing wings, and point to the Art Deco terminal building. A circular revolving globe sculpture at the main entrance, used for determining the movement of planes. This terminal’s design was a model for air terminals in the United States and abroad, and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. The City of Miami received a historic preservation grant from the Florida Division of Historical Resources in 2007 for assistance with their restoration of the building.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
CORAL GABLES WOMAN'S CLUB
Location:1001 & 1009 East Ponce de Leon Boulevard
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: The Coral Gables Woman's Club is an icon of civic infrastructure in Coral Gables. After organizing in 1923, club members raised $10,000 to construct this clubhouse on land donated by the city. Designed by preeminent South Florida architect H. George Fink, the building was completed in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) using oolitic limestone (coral rock) from a local quarry. It was the first WPA project in Coral Gables. The clubhouse is one of the few remaining premier examples of Great Depression-era Moderne style architecture in Florida. One wing served as the first permanent location of the Library of Coral Gables. The other wing served as the clubhouse for the Woman’s Club, whose members had organized the library in 1927. To advance community outreach, the club members also established the Coral Gables Children's Dental Clinic here in 1939. The Woman’s Club took over the entire building after the library relocated in 1969, and continued to use the building for group functions. This building reflects the culture, education, growth and history of Coral Gables, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.
Sponsors: The Board of Directors and Members of the Coral Gables Woman's Club
DOC THOMAS HOUSE - HOME OF TROPICAL AUDUBON SOCIETY
Location:5530 Sunset Drive
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Arden Hayes "Doc" Thomas, a South Miami-area pioneer, pharmacist and owner of the O. K. Drug & Feed Store, commissioned architect Robert Fitch Smith in 1931 to design this distinctive High Pines home. Completed in 1932, the Rustic style structure is a sophisticated version of a Florida frame vernacular cottage. Characterized by native woods and oolitic limestone, the house also features built-in components and ornamental woodwork. As a lifelong conservationist, Thomas gifted his property to Tropical Audubon Society (TAS) to ensure its preservation and use to benefit both TAS and the general public. Established as a National Audubon Society chapter in 1947, TAS traces its origins to the 1915 Coconut Grove Audubon Society, the first in Dade County. Like all Audubon chapters, TAS is a conservation organization named for John James Audubon, the 19th-century ornithologist, wildlife artist and naturalist. After Thomas's death on December 31, 1975, TAS received his property. Since 1976, the house has functioned as Tropical Audubon Society headquarters, while the surrounding acreage now serves as the Steinberg Nature Center. The Doc Thomas House was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.
Sponsors: Tropical Audubon Society and the Florida Department of State
COCONUT GROVE PLAYHOUSE
Location:3500 Main Highway
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: Side One: This theater is one of the few structures in downtown Coconut Grove that typifies the flamboyant era of the 1920s. Envisioned by Miami entrepreneurs Irving Thomas and Fin Pierce, The Grove was a luxurious movie theater designed in the Spanish Rococo style by noted architect Richard Kiehnel, who also designed the Miami Senior High School, the Scottish Rite Temple, and many South Florida homes. The Grove was the most elaborate theater with the largest capacity in Miami. Before its opening in 1926, Thomas sold the theater to the movie studio Paramount Enterprises, Inc., believing that the studio could bring in larger attractions. As one of Paramount’s 11 theaters in Southeast Florida, it was equipped with the latest model Wurlitzer pipe organ and was one of the few air conditioned buildings in the area. In addition, the building served multiple purposes with storefronts on the ground floor, offices on the second, and apartments on the third. The theater enjoyed a brief period of success before it closed during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Side Two: During World War II, the theater was used as a training school for U.S. Army Air Corps navigators. Following the war, the building was closed until 1955 when it was purchased for $200,000 by George Engle, who decided to transform it into a performing arts center. Engle hired prominent Modernist architect Alfred Browning Parker to redesign the theater. The remodeled theater opened on June 3, 1956, as the Coconut Grove Playhouse and was Miami’s first live theater. The opening was headlined by the U.S. premiere of Samuel Beckett’s masterpiece “Waiting for Godot.” After changing ownership multiple times, the theater was purchased by the State of Florida in 1980. Despite its turbulent history, the Coconut Grove Playhouse evolved into one of the most important regional theaters in the country and remains a beloved venue for the theatrical community in Miami.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
MARIAH BROWN HOSUE
Location:3298 Charles Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: Side One: Mariah Brown was born in the Upper Bogue, Eleuthera, Bahamas in 1851 and immigrated to the United States in 1880. Brown lived in Key West with her three daughters and worked as a laundress. By 1889, Brown had moved to Coconut Grove to work in the Peacock Inn owned by one of Coconut Grove founders, Charles Peacock. Though Brown and her daughters initially lived at the Peacock Inn, she soon bought land to build her own home. Located on Evangelist Street (now Charles Avenue) and within walking distance from the Peacock Inn, Brown purchased the plot for $50 from local landowner Joseph Frow. Brown and her family were among the first black families to settle in Coconut Grove, and her house, constructed in 1890, was the first built on Evangelist Street. Brown’s significance to the African-Bahamian community lasted well beyond her death in 1910. Her house along with those of other black landowners, such as E.W.F. Stirrup, became the heart of the African-Bahamian community in Coconut Grove. African-Bahamians were one of the earliest immigrant groups to arrive in South Florida, and the community in Coconut Grove is one of the oldest black communities in Dade County. Side Two: Constructed from Dade County slash pine, Mariah Brown’s one-and-a-half story wood Frame Vernacular house was designed to cope with the hot and humid climate before residential air conditioning. In the late 1800s, Bahamian immigrants brought their style of home building, later known as Conch houses, to Key West and South Florida. To protect against heavy rain and strong winds from tropical weather events, the houses featured a lower sloped roof and larger roof overhangs than typical homes in the United States during this time. Conch houses featured clapboard siding, foundation piers, high ceilings, porches, and operable sash windows. Additions were made to Brown’s Conch house in the 1920s and 1950s, but the house largely retains its original appearance and character, and was designated as a local historic site in 1995 by the City of Miami. The Mariah Brown House is listed in the Florida Black Heritage Trail as part of The Charles Avenue Historic District.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
U.S COAST GUARD STATION HANGAR
Location:2600 Bayshore Drive
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: Side One: This seaplane hangar was a part of the first permanent United States Coast Guard Air Station in the country. Built in 1932, the hangar served as a crucial center for Coast Guard aviation in Florida. Planes from Dinner Key carried out rescue and evacuation missions alongside planes from other Coast Guard air stations in the Florida Keys following the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. During World War II, aviators provided anti-submarine patrol and convoy support. In addition to aiding in the protection of the nation’s coasts, aviators conducted rescue missions to help sailors from merchant ships targeted by the Nazi Kriegsmarine. The Dinner Key Coast Guard maintained an active presence in the community after the war, and played an important part in search-and-rescue missions during the mass Cuban immigration rescue in the 1960s. By 1965, when the Coast Guard air station unit moved its operations from Dinner Key to the Opa-locka Airport, the station had evolved into the busiest air-sea rescue facility in the world. Side Two: This hangar is the oldest building associated with the air station. After the air station on Dinner Key was decommissioned, the City of Miami purchased the hangar in 1972 for use as a gymnasium. Named for local activist Elizabeth Virrick, the gymnasium originally hosted a boxing program for young men, but has since been used for other activities including sailing and other water sports. After suffering severe damage from Hurricane Andrew in 1992, the building was restored with the assistance of a grant from the Florida Division of Historical Resources. The U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Hangar/Virrick Gym was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.
Sponsors: Coconut Grove Civic Club
OFFICE OF DR. JAMES JACKSON, MIAMI'S FIRST PHYSICIAN
Location:190 Southeast 12 Terrace
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Dr. James M. Jackson moved with his wife Edith to Miami in 1896 and became the city’s first resident physician. In 1899 they built a home on land purchased from the “Mother of Miami,” Julia Tuttle. Dr. Jackson built this one-story frame building directly behind the house in 1905. It served as his office and surgery suite until it was sold in 1916 and moved by land and barge to this location. The building's wide porches, supported by Doric columns, exemplify the adaptation of the Neo-Classical style to Miami's climate. As the leader of Miami's early medical community, Dr. Jackson was the official physician for Henry Flagler’s Florida East Coast Railroad, helped found the Dade County Medical Association, served as the president of the Florida Medical Association, and led a number of community and professional organizations. Upon his death in April 1924, the Miami City Hospital was renamed in his honor. Jackson’s office was restored and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. The building is the headquarters of the Dade Heritage Trust, Miami's largest historic preservation organization, whose mission is to preserve the community's architectural, environmental, and cultural heritage.
Sponsors: Dade Heritage Trust
LEMON CITY TRAIN STATION
Location:Between Northeast 59th Street and Northeast 60th Srteet
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Built in 1896, the Lemon City station was located between present-day NE 59th St. and NE 60th St. The wood-frame station was painted yellow with white trim and had a flower garden around it. Henry Flagler had the station built to assist agricultural interests in the area. The depot’s location was near local businesses, a school, and the Lemon City docks. As part of the Florida East Coast Railway, the station offered passenger and freight service, and connected Lemon City to other communities in Dade County. The railroad improved transportation, but prompted a mass exodus from Lemon City in the 1890s. Many residents left to find better opportunities in Miami. For businesses that remained, access to the railroad significantly impacted Lemon City by shifting its commercial focus from the port to the station. The commercial district moved west, away from the coast and closer to the railroad. During the early 1900s, new general stores, Dr. DuPuis’ office and drugstore, and other buildings were constructed near the station. In 1908, the post office moved to be closer to the railroad. The only remnant of the station is a section of Florida East Coast Railway right-of-way, wide enough to include the building.
Sponsors: Mayor Thomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
LEMON CITY POST OFFICE
Location:Northeast 61st Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: The first post office in Lemon City opened on October 1, 1889, in one corner of Moffat’s bayside store. E.L. White was appointed the first postmaster. Lemon City quickly became an active mail center, so much so that the Tropical Sun reported in 1891 that “Lemon City receives more mail… than any other office on Biscayne Bay.” Often the mail was dropped off by ship or train in Lemon City on its way to Miami further south. The post office operated out of the Moffat store until 1891, when it moved to another local store following a quarrel between the postmaster, Garry Niles, and the Moffat Family. During Niles’ tenure as postmaster, the post office moved repeatedly, usually to different stores. It moved into its own building in 1905 under the management of E.L. Eaton, and again in 1910 following the appointment of a new postmaster. During the post office’s 36 years of operation, it moved nine times and had twelve postmasters. Three were women, the first postmistress being Louibelle Goode in 1914. The post office operated independently until 1925, when it became part of the Miami postal system following the annexation of Lemon City. The branch continued to operate until 1974, when it was permanently closed.
Sponsors: Mayor Thomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
LEMON CITY PORT
Location:Northeast 61st Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: Predating the City of Miami, Lemon City had the first port on Biscayne Bay due to its natural, deep-water channel. Prior to dredging, Biscayne Bay was largely shallow. Shipping was Lemon City’s primary link to the outside world, and the community’s commercial district developed around the port. Ships transported animals, people, produce, and merchandise. Ships also brought into Lemon City a majority of the mail for distribution to other settlements in the area. In the fall of 1891, there were between four and six vessels arriving and departing from Lemon City each week. Large sailing vessels were unable to anchor close to the dock in Lemon City and had to remain in the deeper channel. Smaller boats, such as schooners and sloops, were used to transfer goods between ships and the mainland. The largest vessel to come to Lemon City was reportedly the Emily B., a three-masted, thirty-ton schooner that traveled between Jacksonville and Key West. In November 1891, Julia Tuttle, known as the “Mother of Miami,” arrived with her family aboard the Emily B. at Lemon City. Side Two: By 1895, there were multiple businesses in the Lemon City commercial district, including hotels, general stores, a barbershop, a real estate office, a bakery, a sponge warehouse, saloons, a restaurant, a blacksmith, a livery stable, a post office, a sawmill, a music shop, and a photo studio. The buildings were of wood-frame construction. Most were simple and unpainted, but others, like the Lemon City Hotel, were more elaborate. Owners were free to build without restriction. The booming port brought in farmers, who created a small village. Lemon City was the trading center of Biscayne Bay and later attracted railroads to connect shipping by port and rail. The opening of the Lemon City train staion on the Florida East Coast Railway in 1896 marked the end of the port’s popularity. The new railroad shifted the commercial focus in the area away from shipping to rail transport, and from Lemon City to Miami. Around the turn of the twentieth century, businesses began to relocate further inland to be closer to the railroad depot. New general stores, Dr. DuPuis’ medical office and drugstore, and other buildings were all constructed around the train depot. By 1910, only pleasure ships were moored at the Lemon City docks.
Sponsors: Mayor Thomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
DR. ELEANOR GALT SIMMONS- OFFICE AND STABLE
Location:4013 South Douglas Road
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coconut Grove
Description: This low oolitic limestone building was the office and stable of Dr. Eleanor Galt Simmons (1854 – 1909), Dade County’s first female physician. Simmons, a Bryn Mawr College alumna, graduated from the Women’s Medical College of Philadelphia in 1880. She moved to Coconut Grove in 1892 with her husband, Captain Albion Simmons, and purchased eight acres. Using the Encyclopedia Britannica as guidance, the couple built a house which later burned down. As a frontier physician, Simmons made her rounds by horse and a two-wheeled cart or by boat. She encountered alligators, rattlesnakes, panthers, and swarms of mosquitos. Simmons treated white and black settlers, as well as members of the Miccosukee tribe, made rural house calls, and became renowned for her ability to treat difficult cases. She also ministered to the 7,500 troops stationed in Miami during the Spanish-American War who suffered from dysentery, typhus, or measles. The property was sold to botanist Dr. David Fairchild and his wife in 1916 and is known as The Kampong. Dr. Simmons’ office is the second-oldest building in Miami-Dade County standing on its original foundation, and the brass doorbell plate at the entrance still bears her name, DR GALT SIMMONS.
LITTLE HAITI'S MACHE AYISYEN- "THE CARIBBEAN MARKETPLACE"
Location:5925 Northeast 2nd Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: In the 1980s, thousands of Haitian immigrants settled in Miami, and the neighborhood of Little Haiti began to form. The building that would become this Haitian marketplace was originally constructed in 1936, but sat unused at the time. In 1984, the Miami Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, in cooperation with the nonprofit Haitian Task Force, organized a competition for designs to repurpose the building. Miami architect Charles Harrison Pawley, who was born in Haiti to American parents and lived there as a child, won the contract. Pawley based his design on Haiti’s gingerbread-style houses and the Marché Ferrier (Iron Market) in the capital of Port-au-Prince. He also used vibrant colors to evoke the spirit of the Caribbean. When the marketplace opened in 1990, it won a Florida Architect Award and an American Institute of Architects National Honor Award. In 1999, the market closed as funds used to maintain the building dwindled, and merchants were unable to support their businesses. The city acquired the building in 2005 and planned to tear it down, but protest from the Haitian community and other local groups saved it. The marketplace remains a focal point for Haitian business and culture in Miami.
ALHAMBRA WATER TOWER
Location:Betweem Ferdinand St. and Alhambra Circle
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: This “lighthouse” which has never seen the sea, serves as a testament to Coral Gables’ early boom years, a time when everyday practical things could be turned into works of art. Built c. 1923, its design is credited to Denman Fink, artistic designer for Coral Gables. A steel tank was erected first, and then enclosed with a wood frame and reinforced concrete structure designed to resemble a lighthouse, thus concealing the less attractive water tank behind an aesthetically pleasing and architecturally playful face. Purchased by Consumers Water Company in 1926, the Alhambra Water Tower was part of the City’s domestic water supply system until 1931, when it was disconnected from the system and abandoned after the utility company started buying water from the City of Miami. In response to citizen outcry to save the tower from destruction in 1958, the City purchased it for a token sum, thus preserving this unique landmark. In 1993 the tower was extensively restored based upon 1924 photographs. The Alhambra Water Tower was listed in the Coral Gables Register of Historic Places in 1988.
Sponsors: City of Coral Gables
ARCH CREEK MILITARY TRAIL
Location:Old Dixie Hwy from 13980 Biscayne Blvd. to Arch Creek Park
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: The Arch Creek State Archaeological Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. It contains a portion of the Military Trail, a wagon road, built during the Third Seminole War (1855-1859) by the U.S. Army. In 1856 Captains Abner Doubleday (1819-1893) and John Brannan and their troops constructed part of the Military Trail between Fort Dallas on the Miami River and Fort Lauderdale. It later became a portion of the first county road in 1892, passing over the Natural Bridge and Arch Creek. In 1915 it was renamed Dixie Highway. The road was designated a local historic site on January 18, 1995.
Sponsors: CITY OF N. MIAMI BEACH, ARCH CREEK TRUST AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CAPE FLORIDA LIGHTHOUSE
Location:Cape Florida State Recreation Area
County: Miami-Dade
City: Key Biscayne
Description: Cape Florida, the southern tip of Key Biscayne, was discovered by John Cabot in 1497, less than five years after Columbus first landed in the West Indies. Cabot continued his voyage into the Gulf of Mexico, but returned to Key Biscayne the following spring, and named it "The Cape of the End of April." Juan Ponce de Leon landed on the key in 1513, and christened it "Santa Marta." Its present name "Biscayne" is derived from the Indian word "Bischiyano" which meant "the favorite path of the rising moons." After the United States received Florida from Spain in 1821, and at the urging of the Navy, plans were drawn for a lighthouse on the tip of the Cape. The tower was completed December 17, 1825, and is one of the oldest structures in South Florida. In July of 1836, shortly after the beginning of the Second Seminole War, the lighthouse was attacked by Indians. John W.B. Thompson, the lighthouse keeper, was injured, and his Negro helper Tom was killed, before the arrival of a rescue ship. A temporary army post, Fort Bankhead, was established on the Cape in 1838, and became the headquarters of the 2nd Dragoons, commanded by Colonel William S. Harney, the "old Indian Fighter." At the same time, the key was a main base of the Navy's "Florida Squadron," under Lieutenant Commander John T. McLaughlin. The lighthouse was raised to its present height of 95 feet in 1855, but the light was wrecked by southern sympathizers in 1861, and was dark for the duration of the Civil War. It was restored in 1867, and guided ships through the dangerous reef waters until 1878, when it was extinguished for the final time. Larger ships needed a light further out at sea, and the new Fowey Rock light took its place.
Sponsors: Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
CORAL GABLES HOUSE
Location:907 Coral Way
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: In 1899, Dr. Solomon Merrick, a Massachusetts Congregational minister, purchased a 160-acre tract of land located near Miami. Rev. Merrick and his son, George, settled in a log cabin already standing on the property and planted grapefruit and vegetables on their land. The rest of the Merrick family soon came to live on the Florida property, which they called "Guavonia" after the fruit that grew there. They lived in a newly constructed frame house which was incorporated into the larger home, completed in 1906. Called "Coral Gables", this house was built of native limestone rock quarried from a nearby site, now Venetian Pool. As Merrick's crops prospered, more land was acquired, bringing the plantation to about 1,600 acres where George Merrick envisioned and later developed a new, Mediterranean-style community. It was named "Coral Gables", after the home. In 1966, W.L. Philbrick purchased the house, which had become known as Merrick Manor, and created the Merrick Manor Foundation to maintain the building as a historic site. In 1976, the Foundation donated this home to the people of Coral Gables. Merrick Manor, now known as Coral Gables House, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: sponsored by coral gables chapter daughters of the american revolution in cooperation with department of state
CORAL GABLES MERRICK HOUSE
Location:907 Coral Way
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: In July 1899, Congregational minister Solomon Greasley Merrick (1859-1911) and his wife Althea (1859-1937) purchased sight unseen the surrounding 160 acres for $1,100. Several months later, Merrick and his son George (1886-1942) came from Massachusetts to prepare an existing wooden cottage for the arrival of the family. Locals including Bahamians helped plant vegetables and grapefruit trees. The vegetables and existing guava trees were their only source of income until the grapefruit groves began to bear. In 1906 Althea designed a rock house including the original cottage that is still visible at the rear. Named “Coral Gables,” its limestone rock came from what is now the Venetian Pool. When his father died, George took over the groves, added land and dreamed of a planned community. It became a reality in 1921 when he sold the first lots. During the Depression, Ethel Merrick, George’s sister, made it a boarding house called Merrick Manor. Members of the Merrick family resided here until 1966, when W.L. Philbrick bought the home and created Merrick Manor Foundation to save it. The City of Coral Gables acquired and restored it in 1976. Coral Gables Merrick House is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution and the Florida Department of State
CORAL GABLES WATERWAY
Location:Roundabout near Cartagena Park.
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: When developer George Merrick (1886-1942) and the Coral Gables Corporation conceived the master plan for Coral Gables in the 1920s, the city's boundaries encompassed waterfront acreage allowing access to waterways. The original city boundaries went from Key Biscayne, south to Soldier Key and then back to the coastal wetlands called Chapman Field Park. Merrick's promotional brochures advertised his new city as "Forty Miles of Waterfront" offering a ride in a gondola (narrow boat with curved ends used on the canals in Venice) from the Biltmore Hotel to Tahiti Beach (now part of the Cocoplum neighborhood). Although his grand vision was not realized due to the 1926 land bust, the Coral Gables Waterway has endured. The eight-mile-long waterway cuts west from Biscayne Bay to the intersection at Cartagena Plaza, then curves north, paralleling Riviera Drive on its way to the Biltmore Golf Course. It also connects the waterway's western loop through the University of Miami campus and the Mahi Waterway. The Coral Gables Waterway today has rugged limestone that rises up to 20 feet or more to the crossing beneath the LeJeune Road Bridge.
Sponsors: FLORIDA SOCIETY CHILDREN OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION; THE MIAMI CHAPTER SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION; AND FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GREAT MIAMI HURRICANE OF 1926
Location:100 NE 1st Ave.
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: On September 18, 1926, the Great Miami Hurricane swept across South Florida with estimated winds of 131-155 mph. Before the era of satellites and computer models, warnings for tropical cyclones were often inadequate. A storm warning from Washington was posted by the Miami Weather Bureau Office (located on the third floor of the Old U.S. Post Office and Courthouse Building from 1914 to 1929) at noon on September 17. A hurricane warning went up only as the winds were rising at 11:25 P.M. Weather instruments on the roof of the building blew away around 3:30 A.M. The eye of the hurricane reached the coast at 6:00 A.M., lasting about 35 minutes with a lowest pressure measured at 27.61 inches. The second part of the hurricane produced the strongest winds and the highest storm surge up to 10 feet that completely flooded Miami Beach and several blocks inland on the mainland, causing the deaths of many who mistakenly thought the storm was over. The storm killed more than 370, made more than 25,000 people homeless, and caused millions of dollars in damage in South Florida. It continued across the state and moved into the Gulf of Mexico near Fort Myers, making a second landfall west of Pensacola on September 20, 1926.
Sponsors: THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HAULOVER BEACH SPORT FISHING DOCKS
Location:10800 Collins Ave.
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side 1: The originally known Lighthouse Dock, once at this site, marked the beginnings of this area’s fame as a sportsman’s paradise. Folklore and history relate that a man named Baker (c. 1810) "hauled over" fishing boats from the bay to the ocean. In 1926, Captain Henry Jones (1883-1968) built the first dock with a permit from the War Department. By 1937-1939, the Lighthouse Restaurant and the Ocean Bay Trailer Park shared this property. These early docks served as the foundation of an international sport fishing tourist industry as charter boat fisherman searched for marlin, sailfish and other big-game fish in Miami's abundant Gulf Stream waters. Adjacent to these docks was an official weighing station of the Metropolitan Miami Fishing Tournament, the oldest and largest fishing contest in the world. Many record catches were certified here. Captains navigated their charters beneath the hazardous Haulover Bridge with its treacherous currents. They also contended with the threat of enemy submarines, just outside the Inlet, from 1942 to 1943. Some captains assumed duties as sub-spotters. A Coast Guard vessel was moored here during World War II to ensure civilian safety, making this a strategic military site at that time. Side 2: In 1944 the Lighthouse Dock became part of the Haulover Beach Park. The Dade County Parks Department assumed management and changed the name to Haulover Beach Docks. In 1951-1952 the docks were replaced by a marina, built farther to the north. Calling these docks home were the captains, their boats, and the only women working as mates for their husbands. The earliest pioneer captains at these docks were: Henry Jones, Henrietta; George Hamway, Popeye; Joe Reese, Ethel Lee; Slim Caraway (Marjorie) Lady Luck; John Sacon (nee Saconchik), Martha Mary; George Helker, Gremlin; Ralph Nemire (Iris), Seacomber; Harry Stone, Oke Doke; Ira Gregory, Lucky Strike; Elsworth Stone, Anhow; W.D. Murphy, Pat; Charles Smith (Mary), Interim; Harold Alford (Jeannette) Privateer; Otto Reichert, Restless; Robert Paterson, Huskee; Frank Kurek, Sportsman; Ernie Luebbers, Mystery; B.C. Millard, Surf King; and Paul Goerner, Vee Gee. Other individuals contributing to the success of the Haulover fishing fleet: Official Dock Photographer, Doris Barnes; Dock/Weigh Masters, Norton/Waggoner; and Taxidermist, Al Pflueger. They recorded the feats of tourists and such celebrities as Hollywood superstar Robert Mitchum and TV host Arthur Godfrey.
Sponsors: MIAMI-DADE PARK AND RECREATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MIAMI CITY CEMETERY
Location:1800 NE 2nd Ave
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: In 1897 Mrs. William Brickell sold this 10-acre “rocky wasteland” to the City of Miami for $750. At that time it was located one half mile north of the city limits on a narrow wagon track county road. The first burial, not recorded, was of an elderly black man on 14 July 1897. The first recorded burial was H. Graham Branscomb, a 23-year-old Englishman on 20 July 1897. From its inception it was subdivided with whites on the east end and the colored population on the west end. In 1915 the Beth David congregation began a Jewish section. Two other prominent sections are the circles: the first to Julia Tuttle, the “Mother of Miami” buried in 1898; the second, a memorial to the Confederate Dead erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Sixty-six Confederate and twenty-seven Union veterans are buried here. Other sections include a Catholic section, American Legion, Spanish American War, and two military sections along the north and south fence lines. Among the 9,000 burials are pioneer families such as the Burdines, Peacocks and Dr. James Jackson. This site has the only known five oolitic (limestone) gravestones worldwide. These and the unique tropical plants make this a tropical oasis.
Sponsors: SONS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS, DADE HERITAGE TRUST, COMMISSIONERS REGALDO,WINTON & TEELE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD CUTLER ROAD
Location:Old Culter Rd between Tivoli Ave and SW 74th St
County: Miami-Dade
City: Cutler Bay
Description: Old Cutler Road owes its name to the former town of Cutler, a farming community founded by William Fuzzard in the late 1800s. The town was named after Dr. William Cutler of Massachusetts who visited the area about 1880 and encouraged Fuzzard and others to settle here. In 1883, Fuzzard, with the help of other residents of Cutler, cut a path north and east through a wilderness of pine rocklands and hardwood hammocks to the Village of Coconut Grove. The road followed a natural limestone ridge along Biscayne Bay, and established the first overland route connecting Coconut Grove and Cutler. It was subsequently widened to a wagon trail, and was declared a public road in 1895. The road became known as Cutler Road, later as Ingraham Highway, and still later as Old Cutler Road. Today, Old Cutler Road, which follows a somewhat altered course, maintains the appearance and atmosphere of a country road, and provides a tangible reminder of the heritage of the Miami area. Old Cutler Road was declared a State Historic Highway in 1974 by the Florida Legislature.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Department of State
OLD CUTLER ROAD FORMER SITE OF THE TOWN OF CUTLER
Location:Old Cutler Rd.
County: Miami-Dade
City: South of Coral Gables
Description: The Cutler area, once an Indian hunting ground, was the scene in 1838 of a Second Seminole War skirmish. In 1847, horticulturist Henry Perrine's heirs selected a township of land in the area as the location of the federal grant made to him. Colonization of the Perrine Grant proceeded slowly. John Addison, the first settler, arrived at the "Hunting Ground" c. 1866. Around 1880, Dr. William Cutler and William Fuzzard of Boston visited the area. Fuzzard soon returned to settle near Addison's Landing. He cut a path to Coconut Grove which later became the Cutler Road. By 1884, a post office named "Cutler" had been established. For twenty years the settlement grew to include stores and wharves. A hotel, Richmond Cottage, was also the home of S. H. Richmond, agent for the Perrine Grant after 1896. Cutler's economy was based on the cultivation and shipping of tomatoes, pineapples, and other fruit. When the Florida East Coast Railroad bypassed Cutler in 1903, the town began to die. In 1915, Cutler became part of the Charles Deering Estate. All buildings were torn down except Richmond Cottage, which was incorporated into the Deering home.
Sponsors: Sponsored by department of state
PIONEER BOAT BUILDERS' SITE -- 1947
Location:975 North West 95th Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: For thousands of years most water crafts were built of wood. The first reinforced plastic fiberglass boats in the southeastern United States were conceived and built here in 1947. Two hundred feet north of this marker is the former home and workshop of Troy Wollard, where his shop building still stands. He was an outstanding shipwright who was instrumental in building the durable high-performing crafts with visionary pioneers Arthur H. Siegel (1924-2003) and Dudley Whitman. Challenger Marine Corporation produced its first boats at this location which was the beginning of the boating revolution. This small manufacturing venture changed the yachting world forever. The 18-foot runabout speedboats had inboard engines that could reach up to 50 miles per hour. They had monocoque (egg shape) construction with full-length stringers that supported the hull and engine. An outline of excess resin used to make these boats is still visible on the floor of the shop. This enterprise was one of the first in the nation to use fiberglass successfully and was the forerunner of an important industry eventually leading to the development of large luxury yachts and commercial vessels.
Sponsors: THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE CORAL GABLES GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB
Location:997 N Greenway Dr.
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: The Coral Gables Golf and Country Club and the Granada Golf Course, once the Merrick family’s vegetable field, were part of the original 1921 city plan by George Merrick and landscape architect, Frank Button. The golf course, designed by the nationally known team of Langford & Moreau, opened on January 15, 1923. Three months later, the clubhouse, designed by Hampton & Reimert, became Coral Gables’ first public building. The six original coral rock arches seen behind this marker reflect the Coral Gables Mediterranean style that helped set the tone for the City’s architecture. The Coral Gables Golf and Country Club quickly became the epicenter of the new community and played an important role in its development. Salesmen, including Merrick himself, entertained prospective buyers there and showed them home sites from its distinctive tower. Crowds flocked to the Club’s palm patio and danced to the nationally broadcast music of renowned bandleaders Jan Garber and Paul Whiteman. The Country Club of Coral Gables, as it is known today, received its charter on October 9, 1935. A devastating fire destroyed much of the building on July 11, 1983.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF CORAL GABLES, THE COUNTRY CLUB OF CORAL GABLES FOUNDATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
THE PERRINE LAND GRANT
Location:U.S. 1 at 16165 S. Dixie Highway
County: Miami-Dade
City: Perrine
Description: In 1838, the United States Congress granted a township of land in the southern extremity of Florida to noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine and his associates. This land was to be used in experiments aimed at introducing foreign tropical plants and seeds into Florida. Although Dr. Perrine did not select a township before his death in 1840, he indicated the area he preferred, and his family later selected the land which came to be called the Perrine Land Grant. Born in 1797, Henry Perrine was trained as a physician. During a visit to Cuba in 1826, he became interested in tropical plants which might be successfully introduced into the southern United States. As American consul in Campeche, Mexico (1827-1838), Dr. Perrine began to send Mexican plants to a friend on Indian Key in Florida and to seek government support for future agricultural experiments. Eager to find a way to utilize the tropical soils of the south, the leaders of Territorial Florida gave their support to Dr. Perrine in the efforts to obtain land for his project which culminated in the grant of 1838. Events of the Second Seminole War made it impossible for Dr. Perrine to settle on the Florida Mainland in 1838. He took his family to Indian Key to care for his plants and await the war's end. On August 7, 1840, Indians attacked the Key, killing Dr. Perrine and six others; his family escaped uninjured. Dr. Perrine deserves recognition as a pioneer whose efforts stimulated interest in tropical agriculture in Florida.
Sponsors: Sponsored by Perrine Cutler Ridge Rotary Club In Cooperation With Department of State
TROOP 7 LOG CABIN
Location:1107 S. Greenway Dr
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: When George Edgar Merrick (1886-1942) designed his idealistic City of Coral Gables in the early 1920s, he created a special area for scouts and built a rustic log cabin for his Troop 7 Boy Scouts on this site. Today, only the chimney remains. After the hurricane of 1926, Merrick’s Coral Gables Construction Company built the Troop 7 scout cabin largely from pine trees and telephone poles. Merrick deeded these two acres of land, now in the middle of the Granada Golf Course, to the scouts in perpetuity. Their first scoutmaster was Albert H. Bartle. As scoutmaster for the first three years, then a committee member, Mr. Bartle served Troop 7 for 16 years until 1938, setting the standard for excellence and longevity for others to follow. The old Troop 7 log cabin burned down on March 30, 1971, leaving only the chimney. The new building, finished in 1976, was dedicated to Scoutmaster Rex Hawkins, who kept the troop alive during the difficult WWII years when many adult leaders were away. The George Merrick Foundation continues to maintain the property, with help from the City of Coral Gables, the Kiwanis Club of Coral Gables and concerned citizens who appreciate the legacy of George Merrick’s scouting program.
Sponsors: THE GEORGE MERRICK FOUNDATION, INC. AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
TUTTLE HOME
Location:Storage
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: On this site stood the home of Miami pioneer, Mrs. Julia D. Tuttle. Mrs. Tuttle came to Miami in 1890 and was responsible for much of the city's early development. She encouraged the Florida East Coast Railway to extend its line to Miami. Her home was a two-story stone building, originally officers' quarters for old Fort Dallas, constructed in 1849 for use against the Indians. The building also served as Dade County's first courthouse.
VIRGINIA KEY BEACH STATE PARK
Location:Virginia Beach Drive, Virginia Key State Park
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Virginia Key Beach Park is an environmental and historic landmark on a barrier island in Miami. Its earliest recorded history is of an 1838 skirmish during the Second Seminole War in which three Seminoles were killed on this site. From the early 1900s onward, during the era of segregation laws, this location became a popular unofficial “Colored” recreation area known as “Bears Cut.” In response to a bold protest led by attorney Lawson E. Thomas and others demanding an officially designated beach, Virginia Key Beach opened for “the exclusive use of Negroes” on August 1, 1945. The new park, at first accessible only by boat, was an immediate success, attracting over 1,000 visitors on any given weekend. In addition to the baptisms and sunrise services which regularly took place, churches, organizations, and families gathered here for memorable picnics and social events. The park brought together all neighborhoods and social classes of the “Colored” community. By the early 1960s, another courageous protest brought segregation to an end. The beach park symbolizes the struggle of Black Miamians who persevered to bring about change for future generations.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF MIAMI PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LEMON CITY PHARMACY/ DR. DUPUIS OFFICE
Location:6005 Northeast 2nd Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: Born in Newnansville, Florida, in 1875, Dr. John Gordon DuPuis moved to Lemon City after graduating from medical school at the University of Kentucky in 1898. He began his practice in a one-room frame building behind the Conolly Hotel. The building served as DuPuis’ office and as one of the first drug stores in south Florida. DuPuis was involved in larger Dade County medical affairs, including helping during a yellow fever outbreak in 1899. He worked with the local Seminoles in the early 1900s, who regarded him as a white medicine man. In 1902, DuPuis had a new office built on the corner of Lemon Avenue (NE 61st St.) and Rock Road (NE 2nd Ave.). It was the first concrete building constructed north of downtown Miami. It housed DuPuis’ office and drugstore on the first floor, and his family residence on the second. The building is an excellent example of a late 19th-early 20th century commercial structure and is one of the few examples of its type to survive in Miami. Although his family moved out of the building in 1925, the doctor continued to use the medical office to care for his patients. The building remained in the family after DuPuis’ death in 1955. Side Two: In addition to his medical practice, DuPuis was actively involved in the agricultural development of Dade County. He believed that pure fresh milk was necessary for good health, and kept a cow in the pasture across the street from his drug store. DuPuis was known for giving free milk to sick babies. In 1904, he bought several Dutch Belted cows and opened the White Belt Dairy west of Lemon City. The dairy quickly became one of the largest in Dade County, with 900 cows occupying 2,000 acres. The dairy was managed by DuPuis’ wife, Katherine, and later by his son, John, Jr. In addition to medicine and agriculture, DuPuis was deeply interested in education. He served as a school supervisor and chairman of the board of trustees of his district, both unpaid positions. As early as 1911, DuPuis pushed for a high school in Lemon City, one that focused on vocational training with an emphasis on agriculture. The new high school, named the Dade County Agricultural School, opened in 1915. The school received federal funding for its vocational program in 1917, and bought eighty acres of land for use as a school farm. The school was later renamed Edison Junior High.
Sponsors: Mayor Thomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
LEMON CITY LIBRARY
Location:412 Northeast 61st Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: Lemon City’s first library started in the 1890s, in the local school, under the leadership of teacher Ada Merritt. She organized the Busy Bees of the Everglades, a club for young ladies focused on fundraising for the school library. Under Merritt, the school library amassed a collection of 400 books. Building on Merritt’s efforts, 13 prominent Lemon City women, including members of the local Village Improvement Association, met in the home of Cornelia Keys in 1902 and formed the Lemon City Library Association. Keys owned the Lemon City Hotel and was the mother of local landowner E.C. Harrington. Credited as the first librarian, Keys offered space in her home as a public reading room and invited donations from the community. Starting in 1902, the association began raising funds for the construction of a new library building. Completed in 1904, the original wood-frame library was located at this site. It was more like an auditorium, with a stage at one end, than a traditional library. Initial furnishings were sparse, consisting of tables, chairs, and bookcases brought from Keys’ home. The dedication was held in January 1905 and the association continued fundraising to pay the library’s remaining debts. Side Two: The City of Miami annexed Lemon City in 1925, and the independent community ceased to be. In 1942, the library joined the City of Miami Public Library System. The Lemon City Library and Improvement Association, in partnership with writer Joseph Faus, pushed for the construction of a new library branch in the 1950s. The new Lemon City library building was completed in 1963 at 640 NE 61st Street. The intention was to preserve the original library, but that plan changed when a fire in 1964 ruined much of the building’s interior. A Miami Herald news article published on September 16, 1964, said “the library was more than a reading place, it had a stage and a kitchen, and was used for a variety of community purposes ranging from supper socials, through political rallies and into church services. It’s humble, but it reminds a lot of people when all the lower half of southern Florida was young.” Following the fire, the original library was abandoned and eventually torn down. Although its original building is gone, the Lemon City Library continues to serve the community, operating out of the 1963 building as part of the Miami-Dade County Public Library System.
Sponsors: Mayor Thomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
FULFORD-BY-THE-SEA FOUNTAIN
Location:Intersection of NE 23rd Avenue and NE 172nd Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: North Miami Beach
Description: This fountain was built in 1925 during the Florida Land Boom, and marked the entrance to the Fulford-by-the-Sea subdivision, now the city of North Miami Beach. Constructed at a cost of $15,000, it was intended to be the first of five fountains that would mark the entrances to the subdivision. Designed in the Classical Revival Style, the fountain features distinctive unicorn figures and a tile mosaic dome. It was built from cast stone designed to simulate the look of natural cut stone blocks. The fountain stands 32 feet tall, one of the tallest in south Florida. The Great Miami Hurricane of 1926, a category four storm with winds over 130 mph, devastated south Florida, and caused approximately 350 deaths. The event scared future investors and stalled development of the area for many years. Though this fountain withstood the hurricane, the other planned fountains were never built. In 1983, the Fulford-by-the-Sea Fountain was designated as a historical site by Miami-Dade County, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010. The fountain is proudly featured in the city of North Miami Beach’s official seal, and is an irreplaceable symbol of its history.
Sponsors: City of North Miami Beach
PROFESSOR CHARLES TORREY SIMPSON PARK
Location:5 Southwest 17th Road
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: Charles Torrey Simpson was born on June 3, 1846, in Tiskilwa, Illinois. From a young age, Simpson had a love of nature. In his early life, Simpson worked as a farmer, miner, carpenter, and cowboy. During the Civil War, he served in the Union army under General William T. Sherman. In the 1880s, Simpson developed an extensive knowledge of mollusks and shells. He took his first trip to Florida in 1881 to collect shells along the west coast, near Bradenton. Simpson’s malacological expertise earned him a position at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC, in 1889. During his tenure, he traveled extensively to collect specimens, gave lectures, and helped classify over two thousand species of snails and mussels. He accomplished all of this with barely a high school education. In 1902, Simpson retired to South Florida with his second wife, Flora, and their children. He chose the Lemon City area due to its tropical climate, and purchased nine and half acres. In Florida, he wrote numerous books, articles, and essays on local flora. Due to his contributions, Simpson earned an honorary Side Two: In 1913, a group of Miami citizens helped preserve 5.5 acres of the Brickell hardwood hammock as Jungle Park. Much of the native plant life was replaced with exotic vegetation in 1919. After the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926 ravaged the area, Simpson helped replant the area with native growth. In honor of his efforts and other accomplishments, the park was renamed in Simpson’s honor in 1927 and rededicated in 1931. Following Simpson’s death in 1932, the Miami Council of Garden Club Presidents raised funds to construct a garden center in his memory. In coordination with the City of Miami, the council acquired 3 acres adjacent to the park for the center. Completed in 1941, the center serves as community meeting space. There are 162 species of plants within the park, 96 of which are native. In addition, the park is home numerous threatened and endangered flora species. In 1996, the City of Miami undertook a project to remove the exotic species and return the hammock to a more natural state. Designated as a “Natural Forest Community,” the City of Miami has worked to preserve Simpson Park’s biodiversity and natural beauty.
Sponsors: Mayor Tomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
ELIZABETH VIRRICK PARK
Location:3255 Plaza Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: Elizabeth Virrick was born in Winchester, Kentucky in 1897. After studying architecture and interior design at the University of Wisconsin and Columbia University, she moved to Miami with her husband in 1925. Virrick met Coconut Grove activist and black Episcopal preacher Theodore Gibson at a meeting of the Coconut Grove Civic Club in 1948, and it was there that she became aware of the poor living conditions for African Americans in Coconut Grove. To address this problem, Virrick cofounded, with Gibson, the Coconut Grove Citizens Committee for Slum Clearance. Virrick pushed for improved sanitation, access to running water, and garbage collection in Coconut Grove. By the early 1950s, Virrick was recognized as “Miami’s number one slum fighter.” In addition to her work in Coconut Grove, Virrick also crusaded to fight corruption in low income, African American neighborhoods, which included the unsuccessful lone opposition of the construction of I-95 through the Overtown area. She successfully fought against the extension of I-95 south into Coconut Grove along the US 1 corridor. Throughout the post-World War II era, Virrick sought to make sure urban renewal projects benefitted the community rather than the landlords. Side Two: By the 1960s, Virrick was deeply involved in President Lyndon B. Johnson’s "Great Society," a campaign for fair housing, increased job opportunities, and social service programs. Many Miamians agreed that for their city, Virrick "fired the first shots in the war on poverty." Virrick’s legacy of activism is honored in numerous places in Miami, including the Elizabeth Virrick Village public housing project, the Virrick Gym, and here, Elizabeth Virrick Park. This park was designed by architect Kenneth Treister on a 3.5-acre parcel on the border of the historic black and white sections of Coconut Grove. Treister worked in conjunction with Virrick and Miami City Commissioner Alice Wainwright to make the park a reality. The park opened in 1963, and by 1970 had a public pool. Treister assisted with design of a new community center as part of a larger restoration of Virrick Park in 2002. The center expanded in 2006 with the addition of a public library branch, also named for Virrick. This park continues to be a beloved community gathering place and a testament to Virrick’s accomplishments in Miami.
Sponsors: Mayor Tomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
ALICE WAINWRIGHT PARK
Location:2845 Brickell Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: In 1961, attorney Alice C. Wainwright became the first woman elected to the Miami City Commission. Four years later, she was Miami’s first woman vice-mayor. All her life, Wainwright was a fierce advocate for environmental issues, and worked alongside other South Florida environmentalists such as Marjory Stoneman Douglas. In 1969, Wainwright helped found the Friends of the Everglades, and wrote the organization’s charter. She was also the coordinator of the National Audubon Society’s southeast Florida chapter. Wainwright played a major role in numerous environmental actions in South Florida, including the acquisition of Big Cypress National Preserve and the extension of the Everglades National Park’s eastern boundary. This park was dedicated to Wainwright as part of the 4 million dollar “Parks for People” bond issued by the City of Miami in 1972. It was designated a nature preserve with the intent of protecting part of Miami’s natural landscape, a tropical hardwood hammock, in Wainwright’s honor. Other fragments of the once widespread native landscape, and plants can also be seen in Simpson Park and Sewell Park.
Sponsors: Mayor Tomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
DAVID THOMAS KENNEDY PARK
Location:2400 South Bayshore Drive
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: David Thomas Kennedy was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1934. After receiving degrees from Florida State University, Kennedy graduated from the University of Miami School of Law in 1958. He became involved in Miami city politics not long after, and was elected to the Miami City Commission in 1961. Kennedy served as mayor for the City of Miami from 1970-1973, and during his tenure, pushed for the development of new green spaces that highlighted Miami’s natural beauty. Kennedy loved the work of 19th Century American landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who co-designed urban parks such as Central Park in New York City, Elm Park in Worcester, Massachusetts, and Mount Royal Park in Montreal, Quebec. Kennedy campaigned for the “Parks for People” bond, approved by voters in 1972, that helped fund the development of city parks in Miami. Though he was a capable politician, scandal forced Kennedy out of government. Kennedy’s accomplishments were recognized by his successor, Mayor Maurice Ferré, with the dedication of this park named in his honor. This park represents Kennedy’s love of dogs, and vision of a green city.
Sponsors: Mayor Tomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
JUDY NELSON DRUCKER, CULTURAL IMPRESARIA
Location:4144 Chase Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami Beach
Description: Judy Nelson Drucker was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1928 and moved to Miami Beach in 1941. Drucker established the Great Artists Series at Temple Beth Sholom under Rabbi Leon Kronish's guidance in 1967. Drucker was inspired musically by her mother, Lillian Nelson, a Metropolitan Opera singer, pianist, and teacher. As a child musical prodigy, Drucker studied piano at the New York College of Music and voice at the Juilliard School and the Curtis Institute of Music. She sang coloratura soprano with the Coral Gables Philharmonic Symphony, and performed on Broadway in New York City and with the Greater Miami Opera. Drucker's Great Artists Series was so successful that in the 1980s, she expanded the cultural series and formed the award-winning Concert Association of Florida (CAF). At the helm of CAF, she garnered international attention as a presenter of the world’s greatest classical music orchestras, conductors, soloists, opera stars, and ballet and dance companies. Judy Nelson Drucker’s many accolades include two honorary degrees: a Doctorate of Fine Arts from the International Fine Arts College and a Doctorate of Music from Florida International University. Her motto: “I need culture to live.”
Sponsors: Kristina and Mark Bryn and the Great Artist Series
MIAMI STADIUM
Location:2625 Northwest 10th Avenue
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: On its opening night, August 31, 1949, Major League Baseball Commissioner Albert Benjamin “Happy” Chandler declared, “I know of no more beautiful ballpark anywhere than this new Miami Stadium.” From its iconic neon façade, on the corner of Northwest 10th Avenue and Northwest 23rd Street, to the signature cantilevered roof, Miami Stadium reflected a tropical version of International Style architecture. This marvel of modernism featured palm trees, a horseshoe-shaped grandstand, a press box, a private dugout club, light towers, and an electronic scoreboard. The stadium was designed by Nashville, Tennessee, firm Marr & Holman; built by Taylor Construction of Miami; and financed by Cuban politician Jose Aleman Sr. Over its forty-year history, Miami Stadium hosted Minor League, Negro League, and Spring Training baseball games, along with boxing matches, roller derby bouts, concerts, and more. In 1956, the original Miami Marlins were born in the stadium, and in 1987, the stadium was rededicated as “Bobby Maduro Miami Stadium” in honor of the late Cuban baseball entrepreneur. Miami Stadium held its last official spring training game on April 5, 1990, when the Baltimore Orioles defeated the Atlanta Braves 6-4. Side Two: The stadium was razed in 2001 to make way for the current Miami Stadium Apartments. Numerous organizations contributed to the rich baseball history of Miami Stadium including: the Miami Sun Sox of the Florida International League (1949-1954); Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League (1950-1957); Los Angeles Dodgers of the National League (1958); Baltimore Orioles of the American League (1959-1990); Miami Marlins of the International League (1956-1960); Miami Marlins & Miami Orioles of the Florida State League (1962-1988); Miami Amigos of the Inter-American League (1979); Gold Coast Suns of the Senior Professional Baseball Association (1989-1990), and Los Cubanitos, a youth team of Cuban exiles (1965-1975). During the stadium’s heyday, locals welcomed Baseball Hall of Famers and heroes such as Jackie Robinson, Joe DiMaggio, Mickey Mantle, Willie Mays, Ted Williams, Hank Aaron, Warren Spahn, Satchel Paige, Roberto Clemente, Sandy Koufax, Sadaharu Oh, Earl Weaver, Brooks Robinson, Frank Robinson, Jim Palmer, Dennis Martinez, Cal Ripken Jr., Eddie Murray, Tony Pérez, Gary Carter, Rickey Henderson, and many more.
Sponsors: Abel Sanchez, Rolando Llanes of Civica Architecture Group, The Swezy Family, Friends of Miami Stadium
LEMON CITY CEMETERY
Location:485 Northwest 71st Street
County: Miami-Dade
City: Miami
Description: Side One: By the 1870s, nearly 1,000 African Americans were living in and around the unincorporated community of Lemon City, located just north of the Miami city limits. Most of the black community were Bahamian immigrants who worked for the wealthier white families as farm laborers or domestic workers. From 1911 to 1935, black residents were interred in this small cemetery in simple wooden caskets with homemade markers. Lemon City existed as a self-sustained community, independent of Miami until its annexation in 1925. As Miami grew, property values rose, and new development encroached on Lemon City. In the face of development and a city government fueled by Jim Crow racial segregation, many African Americans families were forced out of the community. New laws created barriers that separated the white and black populations. As a result of these “color lines,” the cemetery was abandoned. It was not recorded on any plats or city documents, and the homemade markers deteriorated or were removed. The land was bought, sold, and developed several times afterwards but memories of this cemetery live on in Lemon City’s black community. Side Two: Although the YMCA stood on this site for many years, the cemetery surfaced only when the site was redeveloped again many decades later in April 2009. Human remains were unearthed during the excavation for deeper footings to build an adjacent affordable housing project. Local historians and others researched books and newspaper clippings, and interviewed elderly residents in search of leads about the old cemetery. Teresita DeVeaux, a 101-year-old Bahamian immigrant, revealed she had attended the funeral of Theophilus Clark who was supposedly buried in the cemetery. Genealogical records revealed the names of 523 African Americans buried in the Lemon City Cemetery. The 1925 and 1936 Hopkins maps identified the area as an unnamed cemetery, and 1948 and 1950 aerial photographs showed a vacant overgrown lot. In November 2009, the City of Miami’s Historic Preservation Board designated the cemetery as a local historic site. In 2011, the portion of the site that included the cemetery was preserved and dedicated as the Lemon City Cemetery Memorial Garden and Monument.
Sponsors: Mayor Tomas Regalado, The City of Miami in Coordination with Alexander Adams
GFWC COCO PLUM WOMAN'S CLUB
Location:1375 Sunset Drive
County: Miami-Dade
City: Coral Gables
Description: Side One: Pioneer women from distant urban areas were lonely and isolated in the pines and palmettos of South Florida. On February 14, 1912, six of them met at Eleanor Jordan’s home and founded the Coco Plum Thimble Club. "Mother" Jordan became the first president. Membership grew so rapidly that within a year a clubhouse was needed. Mary Dorn, the club’s second president, found five acres owned by the Florida East Coast Railway (FEC) available for $150. The club had only $100 from events and 50-cent annual dues. Dorn wrote to James Ingraham at FEC, offering $100 and suggesting that a public building on the site would be an asset for Larkins. He replied, “The land will be yours.” With no money left for construction, the club issued scrip in $5 denominations, redeemable when the club had the funds. A simple frame clubhouse with wide porches was built on the Larkins Wagon Trail. In 1916, the club incorporated as the Woman’s Club of Larkins. In 1926, George Merrick’s Coral Gables Corporation was expanding and paid $100,000 for four of the five acres. Under the presidency of Carrie Ravlin, the present Mediterranean Revival clubhouse, designed by Howard & Early, was built in 1926 by the Knight Construction Company for $75,000. Side Two: For more than 100 years, the club has served as a community center and has been affiliated with larger associations, the Florida Federation of Women’s Clubs and the General Federation of Women’s Clubs. In 1926, the club’s name changed to Coco Plum Woman’s Club. Originally formed for social purposes, the club quickly adopted literary, scientific, and philanthropic goals. In 1915, Pollyanna was the start of a free library, ending in 1969 with 16,000 volumes that enriched the lives of mostly students, but also many adults. Starting in 1945, the club housed a kindergarten that ran for 26 years. During the summer of 1948, the club’s “Book Wagon” operated as the first traveling library in Florida. In the 1950s, the club was recognized for its community service three years in a row as one of the top 250 Honor Roll Clubs in the United States. The “Round the Clock” Civil Defense Program, held on September 16, 1957, brought county, state, and national recognition. The clubhouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. The mayor presented the club with a Key to the City of Coral Gables and a Proclamation in 2012, acknowledging a century of service and the women who brought the club to life.
Sponsors: The Board of Directors and Members of GFWC Coco Plum Woman's Club