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ROYAL POINCIANA HOTEL
Location:44 Cocoanut Row in front of the Palm Beach Towers
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: The Royal Poinciana Hotel, built by Henry M. Flagler, was opened February 11, 1894. One of the largest wooden structures in the world at the time, the hotel cost over $1 million. Its rooms accommodated 2,000 quests and its dining room seated 1,600. The sprawling six story structure, painted yellow and white, faced Lake Worth and was surrounded by gardens. The hotel was in use until the 1929-1930 season. It was demolished in 1936.
EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF BETHESDA-BY-THE-SEA
Location:141 S. County Rd. On grounds of church.
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: The original church constructed in 1889 on the eastern shore of Lake Worth was the first Protestant church building in southeast Florida. The present edifice, erected in 1926 as a monument to international friendship, has served all races, nations, and creeds. This plaque was placed by the Palm Beach County Historical Society to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the church, in recognition of the historic role of Bethesda-by-the- Sea in the life of the community.
ORANGE GROVE HOUSE OF REFUGE NO. 3 - 1876-1927
Location:A1A (Ocean Blvd) between Thomas St. and E. Atlantic Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: One of several built by Treasury Department between Cape Canaveral and Cape Florida for rescue and sustenance of shipwrecked. Named for wild sour orange grove nearby, H.D. Pierce, first keeper, arrived with family May 1876. Here August 15, 1876, was born the first white girl between Jupiter and Miami -- (Mrs.) Lillie Pierce Voss. Stephen N. Andrews was last keeper, from September 1877 to October 1, 1896. Area's first post office, Zion, was located in House from 1888 to 1892, Mrs. Annie E. Andrews postmaster. House burned March 2, 1927.
Sponsors: Jonathan Dickinson Chapter National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution in Cooperation with the Florida Historical Society and the Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
THE BAREFOOT MAILMAN
Location:At Spanish River Park, A1A
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: Along this beach in the 1880's and early 1890's walked United States mailmen on their sixty-six mile journey between Palm Beach and Miami. The trip required three days each way and they passed this spot the second day. They walked barefoot at the wet surf line, the hardest surface, with their mail bags and shoes slung over their shoulders. One of them, James E. Hamilton, drowned trying to cross Hillsborough Inlet.
Sponsors: Estahakee Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution in Cooperation with the Florida Historical Society and Department of State, Bureau of Historic Preservation
PALM BEACH JUNIOR COLLEGE FLORIDA'S FIRST PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGE
Location:6th Ave. S. and Congress Ave. (SR 807) at at the administration building on the Palm Beach Community College campus.
County: Palm Beach
City: Lake Worth
Description: The earliest junior colleges in Florida were established under private auspices, beginning in 1907 with Palmer College at DeFuniak Springs. The first public junior college was instituted by the Palm Beach County school board during the Depression years to make college opportunities available to those local high school graduates unable to meet the expenses of attending school away from home. Palm Beach Junior College admitted its first students in 1933. Its first goal was to provide two years of acceptable college work. Soon it also offered career or vocational education for persons desiring to work after graduation and adult education programs. In 1939, state legislation provided legal status for the junior college program by authorizing county school boards to organize and maintain such institutions using county school funds. In 1947, Palm Beach Junior College began to receive state assistance under new legislation. Beginning in the 1950's the junior college program in florida began to expand, aided by the long-term plans of the Community College council created in 1955. The educational goals of Palm Beach Junior College served as a model for Florida's developing community college program.
Sponsors: sponsored by Palm Beach Junior College in cooperation with department of state
CONNORS' TOLL HIGHWAY
Location:U.S. 98 near 3rd St.
County: Palm Beach
City: Canal Point
Description: Prior to 1923, travel into or out of the Lake Okeechobee Area was accomplished only by boat or canoe. In the early 1920's, W. J. Conners, a New York winter visitor bought 4000 acres of undeveloped muck land near this site. Development required that this property be accessible by land. Being a man with financial and executive ability, he was not long in achieving his desire. After obtaining approval from both houses of the State Legislature in the record time of 2 hours and 20 minutes, he set about building the W.J. Conners Toll Road. Although the terrain was unknown, Conners and his engineer, R.Y. Patterson, constructed the road using dredges. A temporary railroad installed on the roadbed hastened construction. First work began on October 16, 1924 and the highway was completed on June 25, 1925, 8 months later. The final cost of the 52 mile road was $1,800,000. The road was hailed as an engineering marvel of the time and contributed greatly to the growth of this area. Although the toll was only $.03 a mile, the average daily toll gathered was $2000. After Conners' death on October 5, 1929, the road ultimately was sold to the State of Florida for $660,000. This memorial is in tribute to his accomplishments.
Sponsors: sponsored by the glades historical society in cooperation with the department of state
DELRAY WRECK
Location:On the city's municipal beach, along A1A
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The old shipwreck known as the Delray Wreck rests at the bottom of the ocean in 25 feet of water about 150 yards offshore the south end of Delray's municipal beach. The wreck is broken and scattered into five sections and has long been one of the most popular diving spots in South Florida. The S.S. INCHULVA was grounded and wrecked by a fierce hurricane on September 11, 1903. Under the command of Captain G.W. Davis, the 386 foot steelhulled British steamship was bound for Newport New, Virginia from Galveston, Texas carrying wheat, cotton, lumber and a crew of 28 men. The storm struck about 5 p.m., tossing the ship and causing the cargo to shift. Steering became impossible, so Captain Davis put out both anchors, but to no avail. The anchors parted and the INCHULVA grounded and was ripped apart. Nine crew members were lost. Dawn revealed to the battered crew that land and a town were just a short distance away. by noon, all the men except Captain Davis and two mates had landed on shore in a small hastily-built raft. They found hot food and coffee at the Chapman House, a local hotel, where many of Delray's residents had taken shelter during the storm. The nine seamen who lost their lives were buried on the ridge overlooking the ocean where the ship had gone down. The surviving crew members were treated, paid and sent to New York. Before leaving for their homes, each crew member signed the guest register of the Chapman House. Under their names they wrote, "Shipwrecked in the S.S. INCHULVA, September 11, 1903, landed on a raft September 12th and received every kindness and attention at the hands of Mrs. Chapman." Captain Davis, his Chief Officer, a 2nd Officer and a seaman from the ship were brought before the Naval Court held at the British Vice Consulate at Jacksonville on September 19th. The Court exonerated the Captain and the crew from all blame.
Sponsors: The Historic Palm Beach County Preservation Board in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
F.E.C. RAILWAY DEPOT, BOCA RATON
Location:747 South Dixie Highway.
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: Side 1: The rails of Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway first reached Boca Raton in 1895 providing an essential link in the extension of the railroad system south to Miami and the Florida Keys, and fostering the tourism and agricultural development around which the community of Boca Raton was founded and grew to prosper. The 1930 railway depot on this site was not the first station in Boca Raton. While the F.E.C. was crucial to the opening of the area, it was during the era of the 1920s and 1930s that Boca Raton received its unique architectural character, due largely to the influence of the architect and developer Addison Mizner. In 1928, following the collapse of the explosive Boom Era in southeast Florida, Mizner lost his extensive holdings in Boca Raton. Clarence A. Geist, a self-made man who began his career as a brakeman in New Jersey and rose to become a utilities magnate in Philadelphia, bought the bankrupt development. Geist, too, had vision, and set out to build on Mizner's achievements. His plans included the construction of a passenger depot on the F.E.C. line to provide service for guests of the exclusive Boca Raton Club, the crown jewel of Mizner's plans for Boca, and to provide a gracious entrance to the showplace community. Side 2: In order to ensure the station would be designed in a style to complement the Club, Geist donated the necessary land and rights to the F.E.C. and is reputed to have made a considerable investment in the railway at the time. Built in 1930, the station was designed by F.E.C. architect Chester G. Henninger in the Mediterranean Revival style of architecture with a gently pitched gable roof, stuccoed walls and arched loggias with delicate spiral columns. This distinctive style, generally associated with the work of Mizner, contributed richly to the unique physical character of Boca Raton which remains visible today. The F.E.C. Railway Passenger Station in Boca Raton was operated until 1968 when passenger service along the line was discontinued. A living testament to the Boom Era in Florida history, the station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, and was restored in 1989 by the Boca Raton Historical Society with the generous assistance of the Count and Countess de Hoernle and the widespread support of the community.
Sponsors: Phi Alpha Theta, Xi Omega Chapter, Florida Atlantic University in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
BOCA RATON TOWN HALL
Location:71 North Federal Highway.
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: Designed in the Mediterranean Revival style by the architect Addison C. Mizner and completed by the architect William E. Alysmeyer, the Boca Raton Town Hall opened in April 1927 as the city's first municipal building, fire station and police department. The Cramer & Cramer Construction Company developed architectural plans with an elaborate front entrance, a gilded dome atop the bell tower and interior finishes with products of the Mizner Industries. The Woman's Club opened Boca Raton's first public library here in 1927 and the second floor served as a private residence of the fire chief for a number of years. In the early years, the Council Chamber/Court Room was the only public meeting room in Boca Raton and was used by numerous social groups, as well as providing a polling place for city voters. In 1975, the city declared that the building should become a museum and in 1976 the Boca Raton Historical Society located its office here. In recognition of its historic and architectural significance, the Boca Raton Town Hall was listed in the National Register of Historic Places as "Old City Hall" in 1980. Several municipal offices occupied the building until 1983 and the Town Hall was restored to its original architectural design by the Boca Raton Historical Society in 1984 for use as a local history museum and archives.
Sponsors: The Palm Beach Town Committee, National Society of Colonial Dames in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
SEA GULL COTTAGE - PALM BEACH'S OLDEST HOUSE
Location:Sea Gull Cottage, 60 Coconut Row
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: Constructed in 1886 by R.R. McCormick, a Denver railroad developer, Sea Gull cottage was purchased by Henry Flagler in 1893 and became Flagler's first winter residence in Palm Beach. The Royal Poinciana, Flagler's first resort hotel in Palm Beach, was located next to Sea Gull. In 1984 Sea Gull was moved and restored by the Preservation Foundation of Palm Beach. It is now the Parish House of the Royal Poinciana Chapel.
Sponsors: The National Society of Colonial Dames of America in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
PALM BEACH JUNIOR COLLEGE
Location:Storage
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: Side 1: This Mediterranean Revival style building housed Palm Beach Junior College, Florida's first public community college, when it was established here in 1933. The college outgrew these facilities after the Second World War and moved in 1948 to Morrison Field, a U.S. Army Air Base, renovated to accommodate the influx of students in peace time. In 1955 the college relocated to its present site in Lake Worth. Among the civic leaders responsible for promoting the concept of the junior college were Palm Beach County Superintendent of Schools Joseph A. Youngblood and Palm Beach High School Principal Howell L. Watkins. The college served as a model for the state-wide system of Junior Colleges. Three students were in the first graduating class of 1936. In 1936 John I. Leonard became the first president of the Palm Beach Junior College. Side 2: William Manly King (1886-1961), a noted West Palm Beach architect, designed this building in the Mediterranean Revival style so popular in Florida in the 1920's. The design complemented the adjacent Palm Beach High School campus and this building was occupied in 1927. As architect for the Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction he designed numerous school buildings throughout Palm Beach County. Mr. King also designed hotels in West Palm Beach, the National Guard Armory (1939), the Hibiscus Garden Apartments (1926) and the seal for the City of West Palm Beach. In June, 1991 the building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The Mediterranean Revival classroom building continued to serve the needs of the School Board and in November, 1991 it was returned to Palm Beach Community College. The College Foundation undertook the challenge of restoring the building for the continuing education of citizens in our community. This historical marker is dedicated to commemorate the 60th Anniversary of Palm Beach Community College, 1933-1993.
Sponsors: The Palm Beach Community College Foundation in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
SEABOARD AIR LINE STATION
Location:Tarmarind Ave. at Datura St., station courtyard
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: The Seaboard Air Line Railway Station has played an important role in the history of West Palm Beach and Palm Beach County. It is a unique example of early 20th century railroad architecture in the Mediterranean Revival style. The Station opened with the arrival of the Orange Blossom Special on January 25, 1925. It was the flagship station of the entire Seaboard line running from Coleman to Homestead. Harvey & Clarke, the largest architectural firm in Palm Beach County in the 1920s, created this new symbol for the City of West Palm Beach in the prevailing architectural style of the period. The Historic American Buildings Survey documented the station in 1971 and the station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The AMTRAK System began passenger service here in May 1971 and the Tri-County Commuter Rail Organization began passenger service from here to Miami in January 1989. The Seaboard Station was restored with substantial funding by the Florida Department of State and rededicated in April 1991.
Sponsors: The Palm Beach Town Committee of The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in Cooperation with the Florida Department of State
BOYNTON WOMAN'S CLUB
Location:1010 South Federal Highway
County: Palm Beach
City: Boynton Beach
Description: The Boynton Woman’s Club was designed in the Mediterranean Revival style by the famous Palm Beach architect Addison C. Mizner. The Woman’s Club is significant for both its architectural merit and contributions to the cultural development of Boynton Beach. The club was built in 1925 as a memorial to the founder of the town, Major Nathan S. Boynton. Along with providing a social and civic center for the community, it served as the town’s first public library and the first meeting place for several local churches and service organizations. The second floor features a grand ballroom and stage. The building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
Sponsors: THE PALM BEACH TOWN COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF THE COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILWAY STATION
Location:200 NE First Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: This 40' freight section is all that remains of the old railroad station constructedin 1896 by the Florida East Coast Railway Company. The station originally stood on the east side of the tracks, one block south of Atlantic Avenue. The original 100' long Stick style building contained ground level waiting rooms and a raised freight area. The station was expanded by 96 feet in the 1920s, and another addition was constructed in the 1940s. Passenger service was discontinued in the 1960s, and the station was scheduled for demolition. The passenger area was razed but public outcry to save the station stopped total destruction of the building. In 1968 the remaining freight section was split into two sections and moved. The 1920s portion was destroyed by fire in 1984, but the original 40' area of the 1896 station was moved and used for several years as an office and for storage at a nursery west of town. In 1994, this surviving section of the historic station was purchased by the Delray Beach Historical Society, which had the building moved to its present location and rehabilitated.
Sponsors: florida heritage sitesponsored by the national society of the colonial dames of america and florida department of statesandra b. mortham, secretary of state
EL CID NEIGHBORHOOD
Location:207 Almeria Rd.
County: Palm Beach
City: Lake Worth
Description: In 1876, Benjamin Lanehart homesteaded land that is now the north end of El Cid. Soon afterward, Elizabeth Wilder Moore settled on the shores of Lake Worth, just south of Lanehart. Lanehart started the first commercial pineapple operation in the area, and this fruit soon dominated the local agriculture. But by the turn of the century, competition and pant diseases ruined the pineapple business. However, the population of West Palm Beach continued to grow. The El Cid Neighborhood was a product of the 1920’s Florida Land Boom era. Pittsburgh socialite John Phipps (1874-1958), the son of Andrew Carnegie’s partner in U.S. Steel, assembled these old pineapple fields to develop the district. Beginning in 1921, independent builders sold expensive Mediterranean Revival and Mission-style homes on most of he available lots. Its proximity to downtown and the shore of Lake Worth attracted affluent business, political, and social leaders who dominated the city’s development in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Phipps named his development El Cid after the celebrated medieval Spanish hero, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar. His Moorish enemies called him Cid, an Arabic word meaning lord. The El Cid District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: EL CID HISTORIC NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LAKE PARK TOWN HALL
Location:535 Park Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Lake Park
Description: Boston entrepreneur Harry S. Kelsey founded Kelsey City in 1921.He envisioned his town as a resort mecca and winter retreat for wealthy northeners.The Town Hall was designed by architect Bruce Kitchell in 1927 and was built by the Arnold Construction Company.Constructed of stuccoed brick and clay tile,this Mediterranean Revival jewel has stylistic features reflective of the late Italian Renaissance,including a rusticated frontispiece,decorative window surrounds and a water table supported by brackets.The Town Hall originally housed the Police and Fire Departments,Town Administration,Library,and Municipal Courtroom.The land boom collapse in the mid 1920s and the Hurricane of 1928,in which the Town Hall served as a shelter for residents,nearly devastated the city.Service organizations provided diversions for those who remained.The Fire Department sponsered dances here in the Mirror Ballroom on the second floor.The ballroom was used for many other social events,such as theatrical performances by the Palm Beach Junior College,which occupied the Town Hall in the 1950s.In 1939 the town changed its name to the Town of Lake Park.Lake Park Town Hall was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.
Sponsors: Town of Lake Park and FL Dept of State
FLAGLER PARK
Location:North Flagler Drive
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: Flagler Park, formerly known as City Park, has been an important public space in West Palm Beach since the founding of the community. The town site for West Palm Beach was laid out in 1893 as a grid pattern of streets running north - south and east - west. The only variation was at the eastern end of Clematis Street, where two angled, short streets branched off to create a triangular, public common area. Over the years, the site has seen a variety of uses. Downtown merchants organized impromptu ball games on the park-like grounds when business was slow. In 1900, a two-story, frame building was donated for use as a reading room and transported across Lake Worth from Palm Beach. It was placed on the southeastern portion of the parcel. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union dedicated a drinking fountain in the Park in 1907. In 1915, a Woman’s Club was placed on the parcel. Other amenities were also added to the park, including a shuffleboard court and a bandstand for outdoor concerts. As the City’s population expanded during the 1920’s, the facilities of the Reading Room were outgrown and a library was built in 1923. It opened in January 1924, as the Memorial Library, named to honor the dead of World War I. It too was outgrown and was replaced by another library in 1962. In 1994, the library was remodeled and the plaza in front of the library was redesigned, incorporating a triangular, in -ground fountain. This forecourt has become the center of downtown activities, continuing the traditional use of this important civic space
Sponsors: CITY OF WEST PALM BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLAMINGO PARK
Location:South Dixie Highway, Flamingo Park
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: This site originally was the southeast corner of an eighty-acre parcel purchased by George L. Marsteller of Charleston, South Carolina, in 1884 for $100. Two blocks to the North between South Dixie Highway and South Olive Ave. the Lakeside Cemetery Association had Platted the Lakeside Cemetery in 1895. It operated as a racially integrated facility, unusual for the times. In 1902, the Association purchased these two acres from West Palm Beach to serve as a separate cemetery for African Americans. The Association platted 190 lots and interred approximately 100 people by 1913. The cemetery never had a official name: maps of the era simply called it “Colored Cemetery” The city’s efforts to repossess and resell the cemetery in 1916 were blocked by the Florida Supreme Court. By 1921, unable to maintain the cemetery, the Association donated it to the City without restrictions. No further burials took place. The City converted the cemetery to a public park known as Dixie playground and later renamed Flamingo Park. Citizens’ protests in 1966 and 1991 thwarted subsequent attempts to sell the park for commercial development.
Sponsors: City of West Palm Beach and the Florida Department of State
FLAMINGO PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of Flamingo Dr. and Palm Beach Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: There are 501 contributing structures within the Flamingo Park subdivision, which was officially platted on May 17, 1921, with more than 76 building permits issued in 1923. Built on the highest of all coastal ridges between downtown West Palm Beach and Miami, with an ocean view, Flamingo Park was home to many of the most prominent citizens of the time. The Florida Land Boom era is represented here in a concentration of architecturally significant homes in Mission and Mediterranean Revival and Frame Vernacular styles, constructed between 1921 and the mid-1930s. Numerous Masonry Vernacular, Art Moderne, American Foursquare, Colonial Revival and Craftsmen/Bungalow residences are found here. The Alfred Comeau House at 701 Flamingo Drive was built in 1924. Comeau was a prominent businessman, who also built one of the first West Palm Beach skyscrapers in 1925. The Flamingo Park Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: FLAMINGO PARK NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
HURRICANE OF 1928 MASS BURIAL SITE
Location:Corner of 25th St. and N. Tamarind Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Pahokee
Description: Early residents of Glades had to survive many harsh elements. Their goal to create a thriving farming community was often tested by storms, insects, and the lack of many comforts. In 1928 the Glades area was devastated by a powerful hurricane that threatened to destroy the entire area. Several thousand residents were killed and hundreds of homes were destroyed. Despite the death and damage, those residents that survived continued to develop the area. The Glades eventually became a major agricultural community because of their desire and vision. This memorial honors those residents who lost their lives in the 1928 hurricane.
Sponsors: CITY OF PAHOKEE AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
CLEMANTIS STREET COMMERCIAL HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:N. Clemantis St.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: For over 100 years, Clematis Street(named after the Clematis flower has been the primary retail street in West Palm Beach. It was a shell-topped road in 1893, when Henry Flagler(1830-1913) began to develop West Palm Beach as the commercial district for his resort community of Palm Beach. The face of Clematis Street was changed in 1904 with the paving and the installation of sidewalks and streetlights. The Eastern end of Clematis Street developed first, but by 1916, as the population grew, the business district began to expand to the West. During the real estate boom of the 1920's, new buildings were erected to house a variety of retail establishments in the 500 block of Clematis Street. Among the contributing buildings in the district are the Hotel Clematis and Gruner's department store at 512-516 Clematis Street; James Rooming House at 518-20 Clematis Street; Sewell's Hardware store at 528-30 Clematis Street; and Sirkin Building at 533 Clematis Street(designed by local architect's Harvey and Clark)all built between 1920 and 1928. The 500 block of Clematis has the highest concentration of historic buildings in the downtown retail area. In 1998 it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sponsors: City of West Palm Beach, Florida Department of State
EVERGREEN CEMETERY
Location:2825 N. Rosemary Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: In 1913, a group of seven men (M.J. Gildersleeve, Reverend R.W. Washington, Fred Austin, Robert Holland, Henry Meador, Sam Sharp, and Henry Rhodes) identified as trustees and owners, had the Evergreen Cemetery laid out. The site has originally been part of Gales Lake Worth Plat # 1. These men, joined by four others, formed the Evergreen Cemetery Association in 1916, with M.J. Gildersleeve serving as president. Prior to the creation of this cemetery blacks had been buried in what was identified only as the “colored cemetery” on South Dixie Highway. For over 85 years, Evergreen Cemetery has been the final resting place of some of the city’s most influential black citizens, as well as a cross section of many unnoted black citizens who contributed to the development of West Palm Beach. Among those buried in Evergreen Cemetery are Dr. T. Leroy Jefferson, the city’s first black physician; J.W. Mickens, an early educator; Henry Speed, a real estate investor; and Dr. J.R. Vickers, a physician. In 1981, the City Commission declared Evergreen Cemetery a site of local historical significance. The City acquired and assumed responsibility for Evergreen Cemetery in 1987.
Sponsors: THE CITY OF WEST PALM BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
NORTH OCEAN BOULEVARD
Location:3851 North Ocean Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Gulf Stream
Description: In 1992 North Ocean Boulevard (State Road A1A) in the Town of Gulf Stream was designated as a State Historic Scenic Highway to preserve the last remaining Australian pine canopy and the original character and beauty of the 1920s A1A in Florida. State Road A1A through Gulf Stream is one of the earliest, most scenic and most important north-south highways in Palm Beach County and was officially opened in 1916 in this area. In the 1920s, Australian pines were planted on both sides of the road in South Florida, up to the freeze line, to act as a windbreak. Being a fast growing species, a canopy over A1A soon developed, adding greatly to the beauty, charm and character of the area. This canopy has been destroyed with the exception of that remaining in Gulf Stream. Ironically, Australian pines are now too prolific and are not as welcomed in some areas as they once were. Yet the Town has protected the canopy and has obtained authority from the State to restore it, which is gradually being accomplished.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Town of Gulf Stream and the Florida Department of State
NORTH OCEAN BOULEVARD
Location:N. Ocean Blvd, between Pelican Rd. and Shore Rd.
County: Palm Beach
City: Gulf Stream
Description: In 1992 North Ocean Boulevard (State Road A1A) in the Town of Gulf Stream was designated as a State Historic Scenic Highway to preserve the last remaining Australian pine canopy and the original character and beauty of the 1920s A1A in Florida. State Road A1A through Gulf Stream is one of the earliest, most scenic and most important north-south highways in Palm Beach County and was officially opened in 1916 in this area. In the 1920s, Australian pines were planted on both sides of the road in South Florida, up to the freeze line, to act as a windbreak. Being a fast growing species, a canopy over A1A soon developed, adding greatly to the beauty, charm and character of the area. This canopy has been destroyed with the exception of that remaining in Gulf Stream. Ironically, Australian pines are now too prolific and are not as welcomed in some areas as they once were. Yet the Town has protected the canopy and has obtained authority from the State to restore it, which is gradually being accomplished.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF GULF STREAM AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
GRANDVIEW HEIGHTS HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of Palm St. and Florida Ave
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: In response to the heavy influx of new residents into South Florida at the turn of the century and the introduction of the automobile, local developers and real estate agents purchased the less expensive land outside of the West Palm Beach downtown area and developed the first speculative suburbs. Platted in the 1910-1920s as three subdivisions, Grandview Heights is one of the earliest attempts at southwestern expansion of the city. Originally stretching from Okeechobee Boulevard to Park Place, the property was chosen because of its relatively steep topography for South Florida. It was considered a desirable place to live because it was less than a mile from downtown, within close proximity to the City Terminals, West Palm Beach Canal, the Turning Basin, and had a view of the Everglades. Built for working and middle class residents, the quickly constructed homes were well made but affordable. The neighborhood consists of primarily Bungalow type homes that reflect mainly the Craftsman and Mission styles, both widely popular during the 1920s Florida Land Boom Era.
Sponsors: THE GRANDVIEW HEIGHTS CITIZENS ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
COASTAL PATROL BASE NO. 3
Location:2633 Lantana Rd.
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: Coastal Patrol Base No. 3 at Lantana Airport was one of three 90-day experimental bases established on the east coast of the United States to assist with anti-submarine patrols. Civilian aviators flew missions up to 60 miles out to sea between Palm Beach and Cape Canaveral, to search for German U-boats. In May 1942 near Cape Canaveral, Lantana CAP members Marshall E. Rinker and Tom Manning found a U-boat stranded on a sand bar and called for a military bomber, but the U-boat freed itself and escaped to deeper water before the plane arrived to destroy it. This incident led to the arming of the small civilian planes the CAP used. The experimental units were so successful that 18 more were established in the U.S., with four more bases in Florida. On August 31, 1943, the anti-submarine patrols were transferred to the military. During the unit’s 17 months of service it flew 18,712 hours, 1,546,500 miles, and made 14 attacks, dropping 20 bombs on suspected U-boats. They saved the lives of numerous mariners by attacking and driving off U-boats and directing rescue boats to burning and sinking ships. In 1948, 53 members of the unit received the U.S. military’s Air Medal. The CAP continues to operate at Lantana Airport.
Sponsors: THE PALM BEACH COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS, PALM BEACH COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF AIRPORTS, THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PALM BEACH COUNTY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD NORTHWOOD HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Spruce Ave, between 35 and 34th st.
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: In 1884, The Reverend Elbridge Gale retired to the area later to be known as Old Northwood. He was the first to build a cabin on the west side of Lake Worth. Gale grew mango trees and one of his trees became the first grafted Mangonia to bear fruit. The well-known Haden variety was developed from the seeds of this tree. Gale’s home was known as Mangonia. During the Florida Land Boom of the 1920s, the Pinewood Development Company led by David F. Dunkle purchased 400 acres and 173 contributing structures were built between 1921 and 1929 consisting of Frame Vernacular, Mission-style, and Mediterranean homes. Over 50 individual builders built at least one house in the area. Notable architects include John Volk, William Manley King, and T.B. Eissfeldt. One of the district’s most unique features is the network of alleys that allows access to garages and other services. Old Northwood remained a prestigious middle-class neighborhood into the 1960s. After two decades of blight, the Old Northwood Neighborhood Association was formed in 1987. Old Northwood became the first designated historic district in West Palm Beach in 1991 and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.
Sponsors: THE OLD NORTHWOOD NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SAWFISH BAY
Location:1133 North Alternate A1A
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: The waterfront location of today’s Sawfish Bay Park played a major role in the pre-historic and historic settlement of the Jupiter area. First inhabited during the Archaic Period 5,000 years ago, this site provided access to an intricate transportation system within the Everglades region. Marine life sustained these early peoples until contact with European diseases devastated the local population in the 1700s. The earliest historic written record of human activity on the site was the Cabot Home, first settled by Frederick M. Cabot II in 1892. By 1894 this site became the center of commerce when a railroad spur, which is still evident, connected the river community of Jupiter to the northeastern United States. The wharves, general stores, depots, post office, granary, fish house and warehouses that followed shifted the town west from the southern banks of the Jupiter Inlet. The Jupiter School, built here in 1901 next to the home of the first mayor, John Ziegler, was used until 1910. The pioneer children were transported to school in a lifeboat from the battleship U.S.S. Maine, which exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898, igniting the Spanish American War. The large Cabot Oak tree on the property is over 200 years old.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF JUPITER AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WORLD WAR II U.S. NAVAL HOUSING BUILDING
Location:500 Captain Armours Way
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: The U.S. Navy constructed this building (circa 1939) on land included in the Federal Jupiter Lighthouse Reservation established by President Franklin Pierce in 1854. Built as Married Men’s Quarters, the two-story wood-frame building had six two-bedroom apartments, each with brick fireplaces, and a continuous screened first-floor porch facing the Inlet. During World War II, Navy personnel lived in this building, and in the then adjacent Transmitter and Dormitory building and the Chief Petty Officers’ Quarters. These three buildings were part of the Direction Finding Station built on the reservation known as “Station J.” Developed to locate the German submarines torpedoing ships off the Florida coast, Station J also served as a navigational beacon for military ships and aircraft, and for communications during the war. Station J was closed in July 1945, and starting in 1958, most of the World War II military wood-frame structures including the two adjacent buildings, were demolished. In the 1960s, the Navy gave this portion of the Reservation, including this building, to the U.S. Coast Guard. In 2004, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management transferred ownership of this portion of the Reservation to the Town of Jupiter.
Sponsors: THE TOWN OF JUPITER AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SANDOWAY HOUSE AND NATURE CENTER
Location:142 South Ocean Boulevard
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Of state significance, The Sandoway House Nature Center was constructed in 1936 by early Delray Beach resident J.B. Evans. Located at 142 S. Ocean Blvd., this is one of the last remaining Resort Colonial houses in Delray Beach. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002, the house is open to the public as a nature center in an historical setting. Significant Resort Colonial elements include the board-and-batten siding, the open second-story porch and original double-hung windows. Built during the Great Depression, the only ostentation is the cathedral window on the south side of the residence. The house faces the Atlantic Ocean with all native plants in front, forming a natural dune, and is surrounded by a hammock of native bushes and trees. Purchase and rehabilitation was made possible by public funds from Palm Beach County, the City of Delray Beach, the Florida Communities Trust and the State Division of Historical Resources. Also, many local private and corporate sponsors made the rehabilitation possible
Sponsors: THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
1913 BOYNTON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Location:129 E. Ocean Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Boynton Beach
Description: Boynton Elementary School, originally called Boynton School, was designed by West Palm Beach architect William Maughlin. It opened in 1913 and was Boynton’s only K-12 school for the next 14 years. It was used continuously as a public school until 1989. The masonry vernacular building has two floors, six classrooms and attic space leading to the belfry. The originally preserved staircase and all floors were built of Florida pine. Although it had indoor plumbing, electricity was not installed until the 1920’s. The schoolhouse was the community’s hub of activity, used for both education and social gatherings. In the early 1990’s city residents revived the downtown, with the old schoolhouse as the cornerstone. In March 1994, the City of Boynton Beach acquired the schoolhouse and had it listed in the National Register of Historic Places. It was restored in 1997. In 1998-99, with funding from the City of Boynton Beach and the Division of Historical Resources, the building underwent a $1.4 million renovation. In 2001 it re-opened as the Schoolhouse Children’s Museum whose mission is to encourage children and families to learn about city and county history through an array of hands-on and interactive exhibitions and programs.
Sponsors: THE BOYNTON CULTURAL CENTRE, INC.,THE CITY OF BOYNTON BEACH, AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD FLORESTA HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of West Palmetto Park Rd and Cardinal Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Boca Raton
Description: In October 1925, architect Addison Mizner announced construction of houses for his company’s executives and his brother, the Reverend Henry Mizner, in the subdivision now known as Old Floresta. The Robinson Company, a New York contractor building the Cloister Inn in Boca Raton, won the contract for 29 Mizner-designed houses. With the end of the real estate boom in 1926, the Mizner Development Corporation collapsed before Robinson could complete the houses. The Chicago partners, headed by Hermann V. von Holst, from whom Mizner purchased the land for Old Floresta, held the mortgage and filed for foreclosure. Von Holst then supervised the completion of the unfinished houses, proposed new names for the streets, and suggested calling the subdivision Floresta, “a delightful rural place” in Spanish. Since the 1920s, Old Floresta, with its Spanish-style architecture of rough-finished stucco walls, wrought iron balconies, and barrel tile roofs, combined with the subdivision’s narrow tree-lined streets and lush landscaping, has remained one of Boca Raton’s most distinctive neighborhoods. In 1990, Old Floresta became Boca Raton’s first historic district.
Sponsors: The Boca Raton Historical Society and the Florida Department of State
POWELL'S BATTLE
Location:9060 W. Indiantown Rd at Riverbend Park
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: On January 15,1838,during the Second Seminole War.The Seminoles met and defeated U.S. forces in the first battle of the Loxahatchee River.Trying to end the war,Maj. Gen. Thomas Jesup brought several columns of troops to south Florida, including Waterborne Everglades Expeditionary Unit commanded by Navy Lt. Levin Powell. In search of the Seminoles, Powell's unit entered the southwest fork of the Loxahatchee river in small boats, led by a captured Seminole woman. Marching west, they saw smoke trails rise from a cypress swamp encampment and were suddenly met by hot musket fire from Seminole warriors. A running fire fight in the swamp led by Chiefs Tuskegee and Halleck Hadjo ended at dark with the Seminoles slowly gaining control. Powell's small force of 80 sailors and soldiers, overpowered by a much larger force of Seminole swamp fighters, barely escaped with severe casualities. Only the leadership of Joseph Johnston prevented what could have been the "Powell Massacre". With news of the Seminole victory, Gen. Jesup and his main column of more than 1500 men headed southeast to confront the Seminoles in the Second Battle of the Loxahatchee River on January 24, 1838.
Sponsors: Palm Beach County and Florida Dept. of State.
HISTORIC JUPITER SCHOOL
Location:200 S. Loxahatchee Dr
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: This building was constructed in 1927 to serve the town's approximately 100 white students from grades one through twelve.Prior to its construction,students were transported by boat to attend schools along the Loxahatchee River including the 1891 Octagon School,the 1895 west Jupiter School at Sawfish Bay and the 1911 Jupiter School on Town Hall Avenue.African-American students attended a seperate two-room schoolhouse in Limestone Creek through eighth grade until 1961,when Iris Hunter became the first black student at Jupiter School.Following the 1928 hurricane,both black and white area residents sought shelter in the school until they could safely return to their homes.Costing $150,000,the new school had modern amenities including a library,science lab and an auditorium complete with stage for the arts.The build whose architect was William Manley King,is an excellent example of Mediterranean Revival architecture,displaying many elements of the style including a low-pitch tile roof,stucco finish,arches and a Venetian Gothic arcade on twisted columns.The Jupiter School served as the town's primary educational facility until 1965 when the new Jupiter High School was opened on Toney Penna Drive.
Sponsors: School board of PBCO & FL Dept of State
FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH FELLOWSHIP HALL
Location:33 Gleason Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: An orange grove, once located at this site, played a role in the early development of Delray Beach. Until 1876, an old, sour orange grove was the only distinguishable characteristic within 60 miles of a sparsely inhabited subtropical wilderness between Lake Worth and Biscayne Bay. Settlers in 1894-95 who saw the grove that was partially surrounded by a rock wall, speculated that the trees were planted by Seminole Indians, Minorcan immigrants, or the Spanish, but its origin remains unknown. A nearby haulover (a location where boats were carried from one navigable place to another), the Orange Grove Haulover, was named after the grove and is found on 19th century Florida maps as far back as 1826. The U.S. Life Saving Service, established by Congress in 1848 to protect mariners, built the Orange Grove House of Refuge #3 in 1876. When potential settlers came to the proposed Town of Linton (later renamed Delray Beach), the keeper of the Refuge, Stephen N. Andrews, suggested that the main street, Atlantic Avenue, be placed between the House of Refuge on the north and the orange grove on the south. The grove, long gone, became the site of this Mediterranean Revival building in 1924. In 1924, a local Baptist congregation built a new sanctuary on this spot. The church, the only one built on the Delray Beach barrier island, was considered by many to be one of the most beautiful in the city. F.J. Schrader was the architect, builder, and financial underwriter. He said his inspiration was a picture and floor plan of a church in Florence, Italy, but that he made this church less ornate. In May 1924, he and a small crew, consisting of a carpenter, plumber, and electrician, faced a difficult task, especially with constructing the church’s large cypress trusses. It was said at the time that the church was “the most Floridian Church in Florida.” The original building was constructed as Gibson Memorial Baptist Church, but after the real estate crash of 1926 and the hurricanes that followed, the congregation was unable to finish paying Schrader. Five weeks after the 1928 hurricane, local Presbyterians rented the church, later purchasing it. After a new sanctuary was built in 1977, the original church became the Fellowship Hall for the First Presbyterian Church.
NASSAU PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Nassau St. and Venetian Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Nassau Park, Delray Beach’s first locally designated historic district, spans two blocks along Nassau Street from South Ocean Boulevard to Venetian Drive. In 1935, a newspaper ad for Ray-Del Realty Co. described Nassau Park as “West Indian Charm Along Delray Shores.” Originally Jo-Jo Avenue, Nassau Street was renamed by developer R.C. MacNeil, who commissioned architect Sam Ogren, Sr. to design the first house in 1935. Primarily developed between 1935 and 1941, the residential neighborhood contains cottages built in the Colonial-Cape Cod Revival style which incorporate architectural detailing derived from early wooden folk houses of Eastern Massachusetts. The original 18 houses built from 1935-1941 retain their dominant architectural elements such as accentuated front doors with overhead fanlights, and carved wood detailing. Nassau Street evokes a time during the 1930s when the winter colony relaxed in discreet small-scale cottages surrounded by natural beauty. The natural topography is a vital element in the aesthetics of the historic streetscape. The City of Delray Beach designated the Nassau Park Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH THE DELRAY BEACH HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
MARINA HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of SE 2nd St. and SE 7th Ave.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Primarily developed between 1922 and 1943, the Marina Historic District displays a variety of architectural styles including Mediterranean and Mission Revival, Monterey, Minimal Traditional, Frame Vernacular and Art Moderne. The prominent neighborhood showcases some of the area’s most accomplished architects. Built in 1939 and designed by Gustav Maas, the Boyd Building at 840 East Atlantic Avenue is a distinctive example of a large-scale commercial building in the Streamline Moderne style. A prime example of Mediterranean Revival architecture is the Marine Villas, designed by Sam Ogren, Sr. at 110 marine Way. Consisting of four cottages, the marine Villas have been immaculately maintained wit the original detailing preserved. Located at 60 Marine Way is The Anchorage, also designed by Ogren and built in 1941 in the Monterey style. The cottage at 707 SE 1st Street, relocated from Boca Raton in the 1930’s, was designed by renowned architect Addison Mizner (1872 – 1933). Palm Square is lined by its original cottages from the 1920’s and 1930’s and maintains its true historic environment. The City of Delray Beach designated the Marina Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: Delray Beach Community Redevelopment Agency and the Florida Department of State.
MARINA HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Intersection of SE 7th Avenue and SE 2nd Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The Marina Historic District, a historically small-scale neighborhood, was primarily developed from 1922 to 1943 and showcases many irreplaceable architectural resources. Later development of the 1940s, 1950's, and beyond provides prime examples of South Florida architecture. A portion of the historic district contains what was once known as the “Mike Blank Nurseries”. Delray Beach pioneers, the Blank family left a legacy of large shade trees throughout the area, and built and lived in several structures alone SE 7th Avenue, some of which remain. The Christian Science Church, constructed in 1942, initially served as a chapel at the U.S. Army Air Force Base in Boca Raton and was relocated in 1949 to 200 SE 7th Avenue. Architect Sam Ogren, Sr., designed and executed the church’s facade and renovation in later years. Designed by architect John Volk, the circa 1937 “Fontaine Fox Cottages” are located in the 200 block on the west side of SE 7th Avenue and provide excellent examples of the Florida Cottage Style. Fontaine Fox, a famous cartoonist and creator of “Toonerville Trolley,” was a notable winter resident. The City of Delray Beach locally designated the Marina Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: The City of Delray Beach, the Delray Beach Preservation Trust and the Florida Department of State
DEL-IDA PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:Swinton Ave by NE 5th St.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Recorded in 1923, Del-Ida Park was one of Delray Beach’s earliest planned neighborhoods. Del-Ida Park’s unusual diagonal arrangement of streets, triangular lots, and public parks are unique when contrasted with the grid pattern layout of the remainder of the city. This imaginative street layout was designed to create a sense of space and maintain a park-like atmosphere. Architectural styles throughout the neighborhood reflect the popular culture of South Florida and the land boom and bust that occurred during the initial development of the 1920s through to the 1940s. Although dominated by the Mediterranean and Mission Revival styles, Minimal Traditional and Frame Vernacular styles are also prevalent and provide a predominantly one-story, low-scale streetscape. Additional development of the 1950s and 1960s provide prime examples of the Ranch and Contemporary styles typical of South Florida. Del-Ida Park lies between NE 4th and 8th Streets with North Swinton Avenue to the west and the Florida East Coast Railroad to the east. The City of Delray Beach locally designated the Del-Ida Park Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: A FLORIDA HERITAGE SITE SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH
DEL-IDA PARK HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:767 NE 2nd Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The Del-Ida Park subdivision was first recorded on September 18, 1923. Motivated by patriotic spirit and the optimism of Florida’s land boom, Del-Ida Park originally contained streets named after six U. S. Presidents. Mr. J. C. Secord of Miami organized the Ocean City Development Company and purchased the 58 acre tract containing 300 lots and three pie-shaped public parks. Within days of its recording, it was reported that “Del-Ida Park is growing fast”, as 58 lots had sold. Mr. Frederick Henry Link, a former craftsman at Addison Mizner industries in West Palm Beach, purchased several lots and served as the sub-divisions general contractor. In 1923, he began construction of his own home at 524 NE 2nd Avenue. Built in the Mediterranean Revival style, the house started the trend for such designs which remained popular through 1930. Link’s daughter, Catherine Link Strong, lived on Dixie Boulevard as an adult, and was Delray Beach’s first woman mayor in 1954. Originally a rather elite developments, the real estate bust left the area without much growth and development until the 1940’s and later. The City of Delray Beach designated the Del-Ida Park Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the City of Delray Beach and the Florida Department of State
WEST SETTLERS HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:NW 2nd st. and NW 4th Ave
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Established in 1894, the West Settlers area is the site of the first African-American settlement in Delray Beach. African-Americans from north and west Florida, Georgia and South Carolina were the first non-Native Americans in the area, laying the foundation of a strong agricultural economy in the region. The community was self-sufficient and settlers utilized local materials and their own construction knowledge. Known as the “Red Line” for the painted tin roofs, the “shot gun” houses that once occupied the east side of NW 3rd Avenue were developed for Henry Flagler’s railroad workers. Isaiah Bruin, one of the community’s earliest builders, constructed many residences along NW 3rd and 4th Avenues, including the Susan Williams House, which is now located at the S.D. Spady Cultural Complex on NW 5th Avenue. The La France Hotel (1949), located at 140 NW 4th Avenue, was once the only hotel in Delray Beach that welcomed African-Americans during segregation. Owned by Charles and Francenia Patrick, the hotel welcomed celebrated black musicians and civil rights figures. The Patricks built their homestead next door at 400 NW 2nd Street. In 1997, the community was locally designated the West Settlers Historic District.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH, THE DELRAY BEACH COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AGENCY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
WEST SETTLERS HISTORIC DISTRICT
Location:NW 5th Ave Between Atlantic Ave and NW 1st St.
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: The West Settlers community, established in 1894 as Delray Beach’s first African-American community, was self-sufficient with commercial buildings and churches serving its residents. Originally N Blackmer Street, NW 5th Avenue was the hub of business and social activities. The building at the northwest corner of NW 1st Street and NW 5th Avenue was known as “The Fountainette” and contained a soda fountain, doctor’s offices, and a pharmacy. The pharmacy, run by Dr. Simon Barnes, was the only one to serve the African-American community. The former residence of Delray’s most prominent black educator and community leader, Solomon D. Spady, is located at 170 NW 5th Avenue. The circa 1926 Mission Revival structure is now a museum primarily dedicated to African-American history. One of the community’s earliest builders was William Robinson who developed the property at 315-317 NW 1st Street for his wife, Essie, in 1902. The Robinson homestead, one of the first in the area to have electricity, running water, and a telephone, was designated an official Red Cross hurricane shelter in the 1940s. In 1997, the community was locally designated the West Settlers Historic District.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH EPOCH (EXPANDING & PRESERVING OUR CULTURAL HERITAGE, INC.) AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLD SCHOOL SQUARE
Location:188 South Swinton Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Old School Square Historic District is named for its focal point, the Old School Square Complex at 51 North Swinton Avenue which is made up of the circa 1913 Vernacular style Delray School designed by J.M. Cromer, the city’s first separate high school, and the original gymnasium. Both the high school and gymnasium were designed circa 1926 in the Mediterranean Revival style by architect Sam Ogren, Sr. Ogren also designed several Mediterranean Revival structures along NE 1st Avenue, otherwise known as Banker’s Row. Two-story Mediterranean Revival residences of the 1920s are on the west side of Banker’s Row while one-story Minimal Traditional cottages of the 1930s line the east side. Architectural styles throughout the historic district include Vernacular, Bungalow, and Mission and Mediterranean Revival styles dating between 1902 and 1945. The Old School Square Historic District contains approximately 15 blocks around the town’s geographic center. District boundaries span south to SE 2nd Street and north to NE 4th Street with NE and NW 1st Avenues to the east and west. The City of Delray Beach locally designated the Old School Square Historic District in 1988.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
OLDSCHOOL SQUARE
Location:342 North Swinton Avenue
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Old School Square Historic District represents the initial footprint for the settlement and development of Delray Beach. The architectural and historical development that gave Delray Beach a prominent status in Palm Beach County can be seen in examples of turn- of-the-century frame architecture found along South Swinton Avenue such as the “Sundy House.” The 1902 structure was home to Delray Beach’s first mayor, John S. Sundy, who served for seven terms. The “Cathcart House,” at 38, was constructed in 1902 in the French Colonial Revival style. Two of the city’s earliest churches were also located in this area: St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, where the original 1904 building remains, and the 1903 Methodist Church, where only the parsonage (also known as “The Rectory”) exists. The South Swinton Avenue corridor and neighboring NE/NW 1st Avenues contain examples of working class homes developed in the 1920s-1950s. East Atlantic Avenue contains the Rhoden Building at 2-4, which exemplifies an early block building, and the Masonic Temple at 44, which was used as a post office in the 1920s. The City’s largest historic district, Old School Square was locally designated in 1988 by the City of Delray Beach.
Sponsors: SPONSORED BY THE CITY OF DELRAY BEACH, THE DELRAY BEACH COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AGENCY AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE
Location:2145 South Ocean Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: Founded in 1886 as a community project, the Little Red Schoolhouse was the first one-room school built in southeast Florida. With $200 for lumber from the Dade County School Board the men of the community, led by George W. Lainhart volunteered their labor to construct the 22-by-40 foot building. Its original location one mile north of the Flagler Memorial Bridge on Lake Trail in Palm Beach was property donated by the David Brown and John C. Hoagland families. The Ladies Aid Society raised additional money for school furnishings. Sixteen-year-old Hattie Gale taught the first class of students ranging in age from Pupils arrived by boat, bicycle or on foot. The one-room school served families living around Lake Worth until 1901. It was then turned into a gardeners’ shed on the John S. Phipps property. In 1960 the structure was moved to Phipps Ocean Park and was refurbished by the Gardeners Society of Palm Beach. The Preservation Foundation of Palm Beach is leasing the building from the Town of Palm Beach for preservation and pioneer education.
Sponsors: x
JESUP'S BATTLE JANUARY 24, 1838
Location:9060 W. Indiantown Rd at Riverbend Park
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: On January 24, 1838, Major General Thomas S Jesup, commanding 1,500 men, the largest army of Second Seminole War. [1835-42], marched to the headwaters of the Loxahatchee River, where he defeated approximately 300 Red and Black Seminoles in the last standing battle of the war. The Seminoles attacked General Jesup's advanced guard of Dragoons, leading them into a cypress swamp while they hid and fired from a high, dense hammock. Outnumbered nearly seven to one, the Seminoles retreated to a watery stronghold on the opposite side of the river. They crossed to the east side of the river and waited for the troops to follow, Major William Lauderdale and his Tennessee Volunteers held a position on the west side of the river, putting them in direct line of withering musket fire that stopped their advance. After dismounting and drawing his pistol, General Jesup ordered the Tennesseans to follow him as he charged ahead. Instead, they held their position, and Jesup was shot in the face. The battle ended when Colonel William Harney's Dragoons outflanked the Seminoles, who fled into the Everglades. Seven soldiers were killed and thirty-one wounded. The Seminole casualties are unknown.
Sponsors: Palm Beach Co & FL Dept. of State
UNITED STATES LIFE SAVING STATION
Location:Van Kessel Pkwy near parking lot
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: In 1885, the only United States Life Saving Station on the Florida East Coast was built at this site. Charles R. Carlin, a former British sailor and Assistant Keeper at the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse, oversaw construction and served as the Station’s Keeper. The two-story facility housed men and rescue equipment, including a 27-foot self-bailing surf boat, a Lyle Gun, and a Breeches Buoy apparatus used to transfer people and cargo from ships in distress. The Station, highly regarded for its efficiency in sea rescues, was manned September through April by six uniformed Surfmen, who were quartered on the second floor. During the summer only the Keeper was on duty. The Surfmen drilled, stood watch in the tower, patrolled the beach, maintained equipment, and trained as medics. The Keeper’s detailed logs recorded rescues, weather details, patrol duties, and daily activities at the Station. With the completion of Henry Flagler’s Florida East Coast Railroad and the decline in sailing ships, the paid crew was replaced with local volunteers. Carlin remained caretaker until his death in 1912. At the advent of World War I, the Life Saving Service merged with the Revenue Cutter Service to create the United States Coast Guard.
Sponsors: The Town of Jupiter and the Florida Department of State
PALM BEACH COUNTY COURTHOUSE
Location:300 North Dixie Highway
County: Palm Beach
City: West Palm Beach
Description: Palm Beach County (established in 1909) had its first County offices in an old school house in West Palm Beach. In 1913, The Palm Becah County Board of County Commissioners approved the construction of a new courthouse by Wilber Burt Talley, one of Florida’s most prominent architects. Contractor Everet P. Maule submitted the winning bid of $122,500 for the building’s construction. The courthouse was completed in 1916 and is an outstanding example of Neo-Classical architecture in Florida. The imposing four-story building is dominated by three grand columned porticos, with exterior walls of brick veneer trimmed in industrial limestone. The building was dedicated in 1917 and at the time held all County offices and had one courtroom, which was used for ten years. The County’s explosive growth during the 1920s and after World War II led to several additions to the courthouse which, by 1972 had totally enclosed the original building. After standing vacant for nearly a decade the County funded an $18.5 million restoration of the historic courthouse in 2002, which was completed in 2007. Government offices once again occupy the gracious building, as does a museum showcasing the history of Palm Beach County.
Sponsors: Sponsored by the Palm Beach County Board of Commissioners, The Robert Neff Family, the Historical Society of Palm Beach County and the Florida Department of State.
ATLANTIC AVENUE CROSSING
Location:Atlantic Ave at Veteran's Park
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: Atlantic Avenue’s crossing of the Florida East Coast Canal (now the Intracoastal Waterway) played an important role in the early history of Delray Beach. Civil engineer Burslem Thomson drew the first plat of “Linton,” now Delray Beach, in late 1895, showing the town’s main street crossing the canal at this location. Atlantic Avenue ran west from the beach between the 1876 Orange Grove House of Refuge and an “old sour orange grove.” The street became the commercial heart of Delray Beach, and included movie theaters, restaurants, shops, hotels, and the city’s first post office. Fishermen brought large catches to a packing house at the crossing, and beach-goers and workers farming land to the east crossed the canal here by lighter barges until 1911, when the City of Delray Beach was incorporated and a hand-cranked swing bridge was constructed. Atlantic Avenue’s fourth and present bridge over the canal was completed in 1952. The gear-driven bridge is a Chicago-style, double-leaf Bascule type bridge with a Hopkins frame. The Atlantic Avenue Bridge was designated a historic bridge by the City of Delray Beach in 2000, and remains an important crossing point for the community.
Sponsors: The Robert Neff Family, Delray Beach Historical Society, and the Florida Department of State
CASON COTTAGE
Location:5 Northeast First Street
County: Palm Beach
City: Delray Beach
Description: In 1899 the Tasker family purchased this block and built a house on the southwest corner. Phoebe A. Verrill bought the house in 1909 and sold it to the Cason family in 1921. The Casons converted the house into apartments and c.1924 built a second modest frame vernacular house on the block’s east corner, known today as Cason Cottage. Although modest, the cottage exhibits the excellent craftsmanship and details typical of many early Delray Beach homes. The Cason family played a major role in the development of South Florida. The Rev. J. R. Cason, who moved to Florida in 1905, was a founder of the first Florida orphanage at Enterprise in Volusia County. He was a community leader, serving as a municipal judge and Chairman of the Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction. Cason United Methodist Church, located at 342 North Swinton Avenue, is named in his honor. Since 1989, the Delray Beach Historical Society has operated Cason Cottage as a house museum to help interpret the history of Delray Beach from 1915-1935.
Sponsors: The Robert Neff Family, Delray Beach Historical Society, and the Florida Department of State
HISTORIC BANYAN TREES
Location:MacArthur Blvd near corner of Northlake Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach Gardens
Description: These two Banyan trees (Ficus benghalensis), with a combined limb spread encompassing one-half acre, form the entrance to the City of Palm Beach Gardens. Palm Beach Gardens was developed by insurance magnate and philanthropist John D. MacArthur. He envisioned his 4,000-acre development as a “garden city” for 55,000 people and chose the name Palm Beach Gardens after his initial choice, Palm Beach City, was denied by the Florida Legislature because of its similarity to nearby Palm Beach. The city was incorporated on June 20, 1959, as a “paper town,” meaning that at that point it existed only on paper. To showcase his new community, in 1960 MacArthur purchased an 80-year-old Banyan tree in nearby Lake Park that was threatened with destruction. The tree, weighing 75 tons and with a limb spread of 125 feet, required 1,008 hours of labor and $30,000 to move it to its new home in Palm Beach Gardens. A second, smaller Banyan tree weighing 40 tons, also threatened with destruction, was moved from Lake Park by MacArthur the following year. The trees are featured on the Palm Beach Gardens city shield and stand proudly today at the city’s entrance.
Sponsors: Seminole Chapter, NSDAR and the Florida Department of State
COCOANUT GROVE HOUSE
Location:NW Corner Pendleton Lane and Lake Trail
County: Palm Beach
City: Palm Beach
Description: The Cocoanut Grove House, Once Florida’s only hotel on the east coast between Titusville and Key West, Stood at this location. The hotel was originally built in 1876 by Elisha Newton “Cap” Dimick as a private residence for his family Dimick was one of the co-founders of Palm Beach. He served in the Florida State Legislature from 1890-1903 and as the town’s first mayor after its incorporation in 1911. The Cocoanut Grove House opened as an inn after Dimick added eight rooms to the building in 1880. In 1882, Dimick sold the hotel to Commodore Charles Clark. Approximately 4,500 guests visited the hotel between 1883 and 1895, arriving by the sharpie Illinois, a flat-bottom boat that sailed between the Indian River and Lake Worth. Hotel Guests dined on fish, green turtle, venison, and vegetables for $1.50 a day or $6 by the week. In 1893, Henry M. Flagler, who had decided to extend the Florida East Coast Railroad to Palm Beach, stayed at the Cocoanut Grove House. While visiting he envisioned his famous Royal Poinciana Hotel. Flagler later rented the hotel for his workers while they were building the Royal Poinciana. In October 1893 the Cocoanut Grove House was destroyed by fire.
Sponsors: Seminole Chapter, NSDAR and the Florida Department of State
JUPITER INLET SHIPWRECKS 1600-1700s
Location:400 North Delaware Blvd
County: Palm Beach
City: Jupiter
Description: During the 17th century, Spanish galleons and merchant ships navigated the treacherous waters off the Florida coast. These vessels carried silver and gemstones from the mines of Mexico and Peru. They routinely ran a narrow gauntlet of shallow water, sand bars, coral reefs, and occasional hurricanes off the Jupiter Inlet as they followed the Gulf Stream’s swift north current. The ships that did not survive the passage left a legacy of cannons, anchors, navigational tools, coins, flatware, silver and gold scattered across the ocean floor. Today, this area is nicknamed “The Treasure Coast.” Ships thought to have wrecked off the Jupiter coast during the 1600s include the San Miguel Archangel and the San Francisco y San Antonio. Both ships were avisos, Spanish courier ships weighing 60 tons or less. The avisos were well-armed, but speed was their best defense, which allowed them to outrun larger, better-armed vessels. Avisos were primarily used to transport correspondence to and from the Spanish throne, but were known to carry goods and valuables. Shipwrecks like these are important time capsules of history, which increase our understanding of the people who sailed Florida's waters before us.
Sponsors: The Town of Jupiter and the Florida Department of State
EVERGREEN CEMETERY
Location:SE Corner of W Lantana Rd and Arnold Ave
County: Palm Beach
City: Lantana
Description: Evergreen Cemetery was established by the Evergreen Cemetery Company in 1892 as a final resting place for local families. The cemetery’s land was purchased by M.B. Lyman, Lantana’s founder. Lyman, who is buried in the cemetery, served as the town’s first postmaster. He named the town Lantana Point because of the flowering lantana plant that grew in the area. "Point" was later dropped from the town's name. The cemetery’s earliest marked gravestone is dated January 22, 1886. There are 18 marked gravesites in the cemetery where members of the town’s eight pioneer families are buried. Occupying unmarked graves are two crew members from the shipwreck “Inchulva,” which sank in a hurricane off Delray Beach in 1903. Several members of the African-American community were buried here during the early 20th century. The cemetery also contains the mass grave of some victims of the 1928 Hurricane. In 1952, ownership of the cemetery was transferred to the Town of Lantana and was closed to further burials.
Sponsors: The Lantana Historical Society, the Town of Lantana, and the Florida Department of State